(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Richard Frotscher's almanac and garden manual for the southern states"

Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific l<nowledge, policies, or practices 




lihaid Si@liihii 



f. 




AND 




SOUTHERN STATES. 



QESIGMATEfD 
To give directions for the cultivation of Vegetables^ as 
practiced in the South. . 



Entered according to Act of Congress by Eichaud Feotschek, in the office of tlie Librarian, 
at Wasbington, in the year 187 7. 



"W-^I=L3Z!Z3:OXJSE : 



Nos. 15 & 17 DU MAINE STREET, 



NEAR THE FEENCH MAEKET, 



New Orleans, La/ 



INTRODUCTION. 



For a series of years I distributed to my patrons, who applied to me 
for advice, Almanacs published in the North and Northwest and writ- 
ten principally with regard to those sections of the country. 

The directions which these works contained respecting the cultiva- 
tion of vegetables, &c., although excellent for the regions spoken of, 
were almost useless, and in many cases totally unfeasible in the South, 
where the salubrity of the climate, the almost total absence of severe 
frosts, the practicability of raising successive similar or diversified crops 
in«one season, and many other important natural causes, render the 
handling of the soil and times for planting necessarily very different. 

Having been a practical gardener myself, and, owing to my seed 
business, being brought in daily contact with the New Orleans Market 
Gardeners, most of whom I supply with seeds, and having always taken 
a deep interest in the cultivation of vegetables, I felt that I was quali- 
fied to give directions and information of a more practical value to 
Southern cultivators, than those found in the Almanacs and Seed Lists 
published by others who had not had these advantages. 

These considerations influenced me a few years since to compile 
and publish an Almanac and Garden Manual, to present to the public 
giving hints as to the proper time and methods of cultivating vegetables 
in the South, and so supply a want long felt in this portion of the 
country. 

In the improved condition of business in our section of the country, 
those who cultivate vegetables for sale, may look for a larger demand 
and a more extended field over which they can distribute their pro- 
ducts, and therefore the questions as to "what to cultivate ?" and "how 
to do it ?" are of greater interest than ever before. Those who have 
been pleased with the past numbers of my Almanac and Garden Man- 
ual, will find the present edition— for 1881 — complete, interesting and 
reliable. The work has been carefully rerised and enlarged, and will, 
I trust, aid materially in the developement of that line of industry to 
which it is devoted. 

I have received many letters from all parts of the South endorsing 
the correctness and utility of the information given in these pages, and 
accompanied with numberless compliments in reference to my perse- 
verance and enterprise, and the usefulness of my book, for all of which 
I return hearty thanks. 

It has ever been my aim, by integrity and strict attention to busi- 
ness, to merit the confidence of customers and the community in 
general, and from the very liberal patronage bestowed on me, I may 
without presumption flatter myself that I have succeeded in doing so. 

Hoping that my Almanac and Garden Manual may prove yearly of 
more and more assistance to the Gardeners of the South, and assuring 
my patrons that a continuance of their favors will be duly appreciated, 

I remain, 

Yours truly, 

RICHAED FROTSCHER. 



EiCHAED Fkotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual. 



SEEDS BY MAIL. 



Seeds can be sent by mail to any part of the United States in pack- 
ages, not exceeding four pounds, at sixteen cents per pound or one cent 
per ounce or fraction tliereof. On seeds ordered in papers or by the 
ounce I prepay the postage, except on peas, beans and corn. This 
refers to large sized papers which are sold at one dollar per dozen. 
When ordered by the pound, sixteen cents per pound postage has to be 
added to the price of the seeds. Peas, beans and corn thirty cents 
postage per quart. 

All packages are put up ,in the most careful manner, and every 
precaution taken to insure their reaching their destination in safety. 
Purciiasers living at any place where my seeds are not sold, are re- 
quested to write to me to obtain their supplies. This will be more pro- 
,fitable than to buy from country stores where seeds left on commission 
are, often kept till all powers of germination are destroyed. As Seed 
Merchants, who give out their goods on commission, rarely collect 
v/hat is not sold, oftener than once in every twelve or eighteen months, 
and as Lettuce, Spinach, Parsnip, Carrots and many other seeds will 
either not sprout at all or grow very imperfectly if kept over a summer 
in the South, to buy and plant such is but money, time and labor wasted. 

Here in our climate, where we plant garden vegetables as freely 
in autumn as in spring, and where often the seeds hate to be put in 
the ground when the weather is very warm, it is an indispensable 
necessity to have perfectly fresh seeds. 

My arrangements with my growers are made so that I receive the 
new crop, expressly cleaned for me, as soon as it is matured. The 
varieties whicli are not raised in the North, I order from Europe, and 
have them shipped so as to reach me about the beginning of August, 
just the tihie they are needed for fall planting. By following this plan 
I have always a full supply of fresh seeds of undoubted germinating 
qualities, while dealers who sell on commission have o'nly those left 
from the winter previous. 

It can not be too well impressed on the minds of all cultivators of 
vegetables, that seeds kept through a summer in this climate icill not 
grow, and that all who use such seeds will be losers. 

All seeds that leave my establishment are thoroughly tested, and 
warranted to giow. * 

Having received a great iiiany complaints that letters which con- 
tained money addressed to me never reached me, I would caution my 
customers not to send any money in letters, without registering same. 
By sending one Dollar or upward the cost, ten cents, can be charged to 
me. The cheapest and surest way is money order or draft, but where 
they can not be had, letters have to be registered, which can be done 
at any Post Office. • 



For the Southern States. 



A few remarks on raising Vegetables for shipping. 



1 Within the past few years the raising of early vegetables for ship- 

ping West, has become quite an item in the neighborhood of New Or- 
I leans. We have advantages here, which are not found elsewhere, for that 
' branch of industry. Freights have been reduced to all points from 
here, and special cars built expressly for carrying green vegetables and 
fruit, have been put on the Kailroads. We are earlier here than at any 
other point, and with the rich ground we have and'the large supply of 
manure, to be had for the hauling only, early vegetables can be raised 
very successfully. 
1 Almost every kind of vegetables are shipped from here, but Beans, 

i Cucumbers, Beets, Tomatoes, Cabbage and Peas form the bulk. In 
regard to Beans most gardeners make the mistake of planting common 
, Ked Beans when tUey should plant Dwarf Wax or Valentine, wdiich 
find much more ready sale and better prices than the first named. In 
j the way of Cucumbers the improved White Spine is the best variety, as 
' it bears abundantly, and as it keeps its color, is better adapted for ship- 
; ping than any other. I have been supplying the largest growers in 
I that line with seed ; the stock of which can not be surpassed in quality. 
I Of Beets, only the dark red Blood Turnip or the Egyptian should be 
I planted for shipping purpose. The Egyptian is a very quickly growing 
variety and should not be sown quite so early as the Blood Turnip, 
i January will be time enough. • 

I For Tomatoes the Extra Early Dwarf comes in bearing first, but 

: should be planted only for the first crop, as when the Tilden and other 
i large varieties come in the market, the former do not sell as well. 
Lettuce is shipped quite extensively, the Improved Passion is used 
j principally for that purpose. 

i Potatoes and Onions are shipped in large quantities ; but the former 

j are very uncertain in regard to prices. Late shipped Onions generally 
pay better than those shipped too early. The market often gets over- 
I stocked with vegetables, but never in the spring of the year as long as 
I they can be shipped, and the planting at that time is more renumera- 
i tive than at any other, 
I There is a broad field yet to growers of vegetables for shipping. 



EiCHAED Fbotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



1st Month. 



JANUARY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Soutl:\ern States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 7d. 2h. 48m. Morning. 

Full Moon 15d. 6h. 12m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 23d. 3h, 26m. Morning. 

New Moon 29d. 71i. 27m. Evening. 



DAY 
OF 

Month & Week 



Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


rises. 


sets. 


r. & s. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h m. 



CHRONOIiOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS 



1 I Sat. 



4 51 I 6 26 I Union of Ireland with Great Britain, 1801. 



1) Sunday after New Year. 



Matth. 3. 



Day's length, 9h. 44m. 



2 


Sun. 


7 8 


4 52 


7 28 


3 


Mon. 


7 8 


4 52 


8 35 


4 


Tues. 


7 8 


4 52* 


9 49 


5 


Wed. 


7 7 


4 53 


10 46 


6 


Thurs. 


7 7 


4 53 


11 47 


7 


Frid. 


7 7 


4 53 


morn. 


8 


Sat. 


7 6 


4 54 


12 43 



Gen. Wolf born, Westerham, Kent, 1727. 
Eliot Warburtt)n, Hist., Novelist, died, 1852, 
Introd'n of Silk manufes into Europe, 1536. 
Vigil of Epiphany. 

Epiphany, or 12th day, old Christmas Day. 
Robert Nicoll, poet, born, 1814. [1877. 

Battle of N. O., 1815, & Inaug'n Gov. Nicholls 



2) 1st Sunday after Epiphany. Luke 2. Day's length, 9h. 48m. 



9 


Sun. 


7 6 


4 54 


1 34 


Car. Lucr. Hersehel, Astronomer, died, 1848. 


10 


Mon. 


7 6 


4 54 


2 30 


1st Steamb't New Orleans fr. Pittsburg, 1812 


11 


Tues. 


7 5 


4 55 


3 25 


First Lottery drawn in England, 1569. 


12 


Wed. 


7 4 


4 56 


4 20 


St. Arcadius, Martyr. 


13 


Thurs. 


7 3 


4 57 


5 10 


G. Fox, Founder Sect of Quakers, died, 1690. 


14 


Frid. 


7 3 


4 57 


5 43 


"Great Frost," in England began, 1205. 


15 


Sat. 


7 2 


4 58 


rises. 


Thomas Crofton Crpker, bom, 1798. 



3) 2nd Sunday after Epiphany. John 2. Day's length, 9h. 58m. 

Edmond Spenser, Poet, died, 1599. 
Mozart, Musician, born, 1756. 
Festival of St. Peter's Chair, at Rome. 
James Watt, born, 1736. 
Coldest day iu the century, 1838. 
St. Agnes, Virgin Martyr, 304. 
Francis Bacon, born, 1561. 



16 


Sun. 


7 1 


4 59 


6 12 


17 


Mon. 


7 1 


4 59 


7 9 


18 


Tues. 


7 


5 


8 14 


19 


Wed. 


7 


5 


9 20 


20 


Thurs. 


6 59 


5 1 


10 27 


21 


Frid. 


6 58 


5 2 


11 30 


22 


Sat. 


6 58 


5 2 


morn. 



4) 3rd Sunday after Epiphany. Luke 



Day's length, lOh. 6m. 



Thanksgiving for victory of 8th, 1815. 

Frederick, the Great, born, 1712, 

St. Paul's Day. 

Louisiana seceded, 1861. 

Admiral Lord Hood, died, 1816. 

Henry VIII, died, 1547. 

Emanuel de Swedenborg, born, 1688 — 89. 

5) 4th Sunday in Epiphany. Matth. 8. Day's length, lOh. 18m. 



23 


Sun. 


6 57 


5 3 


12 23 


24 


Mon. 


6 56 


5 4 


1 35 


25 


Tues. 


6 55 


5 5 


2 43 


26 


Wed. 


6 55 


5 5 


3 46 


27 


Thurs. 


6 54 


5 6 


4 40 


28 


Frid. 


6 53 


5 7 


5 34 


29 


Sat. 


6 52 


5 8 


sets. 



Sun. 

Mon. 



6 51 
6 50 



5 9 
5 10 



6 16 

7 22 



King Charles I, beheaded, 1649. 
Ben. Johnson, bom, 1574. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5641— January 1, Eosh-codesh Shebath. 
30 and 31, Adar Kishon. 



For the Southern States. 



2d Month. 



FEBRUARY. 



28 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 5d. 7b. 33m. Evening. 

Full Moon 14d. Ih, 2m. Morning. 

Last Quarter ... 21d. 2h. 8m. Afternoon. 

New Moon 23d. 6h. 11m. Morning. 



DAY 


rises. 


SUQ 

seta. 


mooa 
r. & s. 


th &Week 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 1 



CHRONOI.OGY 

— OF— 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Tues. 


6 49 


5 11 


8 27 


2 


Wed. 


6 49 


5 11 


9 26 


3 


Thurs. 


6 48, 


5 12 


10 22 


4 


Frid. 


6,47 


5 13 


11 20 


5 


Sat. 


6 46 


5 14 


morn. , 



Washington elected President, 1789. 
Purification of the Blessed Virgin. [Candle- 
Henry Cromwell, born, 1627. [mas day. 
Delegates from Confederate States meet at 
morn.,01e Bull, born, 1810. [Montgomery, Ala. 1861. 



6) 5th Sunday after Epiphany. Matthew 12. Day's length, lOh. 30m. 



6 


Sun. 


6 45 


5 15 


12 4 


7 


Mon. 


6 44 


5 16 


12 54 


8 


Tues. 


6 43 


5 17 


1 41 


9 


Wed. 


6 42 


5 18 


2 28 


10 


Thurs. 


6 41 


5 19 


3 10 


11 


Frid. 


6 40 


5 20 


3 29 


12 


Sat. 


6 39 


5 21 


4 44 



Charles II, King of England, died, 1685. 

Charles Dickens, born, 1812. 

Mary Queen of Scots, beheaded, 1587. 

David Eezzio, murdered, 1565 — 66. 

Riot at Oxford, 1354. 

Mary, Queen of England, bom, 1516. 

Abraham Lincoln, born, 1809. 



7) Septuagesima Sunday. 



Matth. 20. Day's length, lOh. 44ra. 



13 


Sun. 


6 38 


5 22 


5 42 


14 


Mon. 


6 37 


5 23 


nses. 


15 


Tues. 


6 36 


5 24 


7 16 


16 


Wed. 


6 35 


5 25 


8 30 


17 


Thurs. 


6 34 


5 26 


9 30 


18 


Frid. 


6 33 


5 27 


10 33 


19 


Sat. 


6 32 


5 28 


11 36 



St. Gregory, II, Pope, 631. 

St. Valentine's Day. 

Galilei Galileo, Astronomer, born, 1564. 

Dr. Kane, Amer. Arctic Explorer, died, 1857. 

Columbia, 8. C, burned, 1865. 

Pope Gregory, V, died 999. 

Eliz. Carter, classical scholar, died, 1806. 



8) Sexagesima Sunday. 



Luke 8. 



Day's length, lOh. 58m. 



20 


Sun. 


6 31 


5 29 


morn. 


21 


Mon. 


6 30 


5 30 


12 45 


22 


Tues. 


6 29 


5 31 


1 51 


23 


Wed. 


6 28 


5 32 


2 41 


24 


Thurs. 


6 27 


5 33 


3 16 


25 


Frid. 


6 26 


5 34 


4 2 


26 


Sat. 


6 25 


5 35 


4 52 



U. Gaghan & T. Conner, felon poets, hanged, 

PieiTe du Bose, born, 1623. [1749. 

George Washington, born, 1732. 

Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. 

St. Matthias, Apostle. 

Dr. Bucan, bom, 1729. 

Thomas Moore, Poet, died, 1852. 



9) Quinquagesima Sunday. Luke 18. Day's length, llh. 12m. 



27 

28 



Sun. 

Mon. 



6 24 
6 23 



5 36 
5 37 



5 37 Longfellow, bom, 1807. [1447. 

sets. [Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, murdered, 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5641— February 26. Shekolim. 



EicHAED Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



3rd Month, 



MARCH. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for tl\e Latitude of Soutl:)eri\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 7d. 2h. 4rlm. Afternoon. 

Full Moon lod. 51i. 15m." Evening. 

Last Quarter 22cl. lOh. 8m, Evening. 

New Moou 29d. oh. 11m. Evening. 



^^J rises. 

OF 

Month & Week! li. m. 



sets. 
h. m 



Moou 
r. & s. 



CHK.OIVOLOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Tubs. 


6 22 


5 38 


7 12 


2 


Wed. 


6 21 


5 39 


8 20 


3 


Thurs. 


6 19 


5 41 


9 25 


4 


Frid. 


6 18 


5 42 


10 33 


5 


Sat. 


6 17 


5 43 


11 40 



I^LARDI GRAS, inN. O., Shrove Tuesday. 
Territory of Dakota, organized, 1861. 
Edmund Waller, Poet, born, 1605. 
Abraham LincolD, inaugurated, 1861. 
1st Locomotive ran through Brit, tube, 1830. 

lO) 1st Sunday in Lent. Matthew 11. Day's length, llh. 28m. 



Great financial excitement, 1863. 

Blanc hard, Aeronaut, died, 1809. 

King Williau), III, of England, died, 1702. • 

William Cobbett, born, 1762. 

The Forty Martyrs of St. Sebaste, 320. 

1st daily paper, "Daily Courant," Brit. 1702. 

St. Greg-ory the Great, Pope, 604. 



6 


SllO. 


6 16 


5 44 


morn. 


7 


Mon. 


6 15 


5 45 


12 24 


8 


Tues. 


6 14 


5 46 


1 15 


9 


Wed. 


6 13 


5 47 


2 14 





Thurs. 


6 11 


5 49 


3 12 


1 


Frid. 


6 10 


5 50 


3 48 


2 


Sat. 


6 9 


5 51 


4 19 



11) 2nd Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 15. 



Day's length, llh. 44m. 



13 


Sun. 


6 8 


5 52 


4 56 


14 


Mon. 


6 7 


5 53 


5 27 


15 


Tues. 


6 6 


5 54 


rises. 


16 


Wed. 


6 5 


5 55 


7 41 


17 


Thurs. 


6 3 


5 57. 


8 56 


18 


Frid. 


6 2 


5 58 


9 58 


19 


Sat. 


6 1 


5 59 


10 59 



Discov'y of planet Uranus, by Herschel, 1781. 

Andrew Jackson, born, 1767. 

Julius Ctesar, assassini\ted, B. C, 44. 

Prince Hohenlohe's miraculous cures, 1823. 

St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland. 

Edward, Kmg and Martyr, 978. 

St. Joseph's Da3^ 



12) 3rd Sunday in Lent. 



Luke 11. 



Bay's length, 12h. Om. 



20 


Sun. 


6 


6 1 


11 58 


21 


Mon. 


5 59 


6 2 


morn. 


22 


Tues. 


5 58 


6 3 


12 55 


23 


Wed. 


5 57 


6 4 


1 41 


24 


Thurs. 


5 56 


6 5 


2 32 


25 


Frid. 


5 54 


6 6 


3 10 


26 


Sat. 


5 53 


6 7 


3 43 



Vesta, discovered, 1807. 

Louisiana ceded to France, 1800. 

J. W. von "Goethe, German Poet, died, 1832. 

Peter the Cruel, King of Castile, died, 1369. 

Mahomet, 11, born, 1430. 

Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Gov. Winthrop, died, 1640. 



13) 4th Sunday in Lent. 



John 6. 



Day's length, 12h. 16m. 



27 


Sun. 


5. 52 


6 8 


4 18 


28 


Mon. 


5 51 


6 9 


5 4 


29 


rues. 


5 50 


6 10 


sets. 


30 


Wed. 


5 49 


6 11 


7 46 


31 


Thurs. 


5 48 


6 12 


8 34 



Vei-a Cruz captured, 1847. 
Planet Pallas, discovered, 1^2. 
:Mrs. Fitzherbert, died, 1837. 
Dr. William Hunter, died, 1783. 
Beethoven, died, 1827. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5641— March 1. and 2. Kosh-Chodesh 

Adar-Shenie ; 15 Purim ; 19. Parshoth Poroh ; 26. Parshoth 

Hachodesh ; 31. Eosh-Chodesh Nissan. 



Foe the Southern States. 



4th Month. 



APRIL. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for tl^e Latitude of Soutl:\ern States. 



MOON'S PHASES 

First Quarter 6d. lOh. 33m. Forenoon. 

Full Moon IM. 6h. 28m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 21d. 4h. 16m. Morning. 

New Moon 27d. 5h. 3m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month v<j Week 



Su I 
rises. 



Sna 

sets. 



h. m. I h ra. 



Moon 

r. &3. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 Frid. 

2 Sat. 



5 47 
5 -16 



6 13 
G 14 



9 24 
10 10 



Earthquake at Melbourne, 1871. 
Jefferson, born, 1743. 



14) 5th Sunday in Lent. 



John 



Day's length, 12h. 30m. 



Washington Irving, born, 1783. 

Oliver Goldsmith, died, 1774. 

St. Irgernach, of Ireland, 550. 

Battle of Shiloh, 1862. 

St. Francis Xavier, Missionary, born, 1506. 

Louisiana admitted to the Union, 1812. 

General R. E. Lee, surrendered, 1865. 



3 


ISuaa. 


5 45 


6 15 


10 56 


4 


Mon. 


5 43 


6 17 


11 43 


5 


Tues. 


5 42 


6 18 


morn. 


6 


Wed. 


5 "41 


6 19 


12 35 


7 


Thurs. 


5 40 


6 20 


1 9 


8 


Frid. 


5 39 


6 21 


1 49 


9 


Sat. 


5 38 


6 22 


2 26 



15) Palm Sunday. 



Matthew 21. 



10 


Sun. 


5 37 


6 23 


2 56 


11 


Mon. 


5 36 


6 24 


3 26 


12 


Tues. 


5 35 


6 25 


3 57 


13 


Wed. 


5 34 


&26 


4 27 


14 


Thurs. 


5 33 


6 27 


rises. 


15 


Frid. 


5 32 


6 28 


8 24 


16 


Sat. 


5 31 


6 29 


9 40 



Day's length, 12h. 46m. 



376. 



St. Bademus, Abbot, Martyr, 

Geo. Canning, born, 1770. [Sumter. 

First gun of the Civil War fired, 1861, at Fort 

Sydney Lady Morgan^ died, 1859. 

Lincoln, assassinated, 1865, 

Good Friday. 

Battle of Culloden, 1746. 



16) Easter Sunday. 



Mark 16. 



Day's length, 13h. Om. 



17 


Sun. 


5 30 


6 30 


10 40 


18 


Mon. 


5 29 


6 31 


11 41 


19 


Tues. 


5 28 


6 32 


morn. 


20 


Wed. 


5 27 


6 33 


12 33 


21 


Thurs. 


5 26 


6 34 


1 15 


22 


Frid. 


5 25 


6 35 


1 51 


23 


Sat. 


5 24 


6 36 


2 21 



Easter Sunday. 

Shakespeare, born, 1564. 

Battle of Lexington, 1775. 

E. Barton, "Maid of Kent," executed,' 1534. 

Confederate Victory at Plymouth, N. C, 1863. 

Madam De Stael, born, 1766. 

Shakespeare, died, 1616. 



ll') 1st Sunday after Easter. John 20. Day's length, 13h. 14m. 

Oliver Cromwell, born, 1599. 

St. Mark's Day. 

David Hume, born, 1711. 

Sir Wm. Jones, Poet and Scholar, died, 1794. 

Monroe, born,*1758. 

King Edward, IV, of England, born, 1441. 

Louisiana purchased from France by the U. S. 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5641— April 9. Sabbath Hagodol ; 14. and 

15. First Days Pesach ; 20. and 21. Last Days Pesach ; 

29. and 30. Eosh-Chodesh Ijar. 



24 


Sun. 


5 23 


6 37 


2 50 


25 


Mon. 


5 22 


6 38 


3 14 


26 


Tues. 


5 21 


6 39 


3 46 


27 


Wed. 


5 20 


6 40 


4 16 


28 


Thurs. 


5 19 


6 40 


sets. 


29 


Frid. 


5 18 


6 43 


8 8 


30 


Sat. 


5 17 


6 43 


9 9 



10 


ElCHAED FROTSCnER' 


5 Almanac and Garden Manual 




5th Mo 


nth. 




MAY. 


31 


Days. 




Calculated for 


the 


Latitude of Southern 


states. 





MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 6d. 51i. 23m. Morning. 

Full Moon 13d. 5h. 2m. Atcernoon. 

Last Quarter 20d. 9h. 45m. Forenoon. 

New Moon 27d. 6h. 14m. Eveninc;. 



DAY 

OP 

Month &Week 



Hun 


8un 


moon 


rises. 


sets. 


r. & s. 


h. m. 


b. m. 


h. m. 



CKKOMOIiOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


§1311. 


5 16 


7 6 


9 48 


2 


Mon. 


5 15 


7 6 


10 40 


3 


Tuea. 


5 14 


7 7 


11 21 


4 


Wed. 


5 14 


7 7 


11 55 


5 


Thurs. 


5 13 


7 8 


morn. 


6 


Frid. 


5 12 


7 8 


12 36 


7 


Sat. 


5 11 


7 9 


1 9 



1§) 2nd Sunday after Easter. John 10. Day's length, 13h. 28in. 

St. Phillip and St. James, Apostles. 

William Camden, born, 1551. 

Discovery of the Holy Cross, by St. Helena. 

Dr. Isgac Barrow, English divine, died, 1677. 

Emperor Justinian, born, 482. . 

Humboldt, died, 1859. 

St. Benedict, 11, Pope, Confessor, 686. 

19) 3rd Sunday after Easter. John 16. Day's length, 13h. 40m. 



Stonewall Jackson, died, 1863. 
Battle of Spotsylvania, 1864. 
Pacific Eail Road finished, 1869. 
Madame Ricamire, died, 1849. 
St. Pancras, Martyr, 304. 
Jamestown, Va., settled, 1607. 
Battle of Crown Point, 1775. 



8 


Sun. 


5 10 


7 9 


1 40 


9 


Mon. 


5 10 


7 9 


2 12 


10 


Tues. 


5 9 


7 9 


2 43 


11 


Wed. 


5 8 


7 10 


3 11 


12 


Thurs. 


5 7 


7 10 


3 44 


13 


Frid. 


5 6 


7 10 


rises. 


14 


Sat. 


5 5 


7 10 


8 20 



20) 


4th Sunday after Easter 


John 16. Day's length, 13h. 50m 


15 


Sim. 


5 5 


7 10 


9 19 


St. Isidore, died, 1170. . 


16 


Mon. 


5 4 


7 10 


10 16 


Sir Wiliiavn Petty, born, 1623. 


17 


Tues. 


5 3 


7 10 


11 6 


J. Jay, died, 1829. 


18 


Wed. 


5 2 


7 11 


11 45 


Napoleon I, elected Emperor, 1804. 


19 


Thurs. 


5 2 


7 11 


morn. 


St. Dunstaii, Archbishop of Canterbury, 988. 


20 


Frid. 


5 1 


7 11 


12 28 


Hawthorn, died, 1864. 


21 


Sat. 


5 1 


7 12 


12 59 


Columbus, died, 1506. . 



2 1) 5th Sunday after Easter. John 16. 



Day's length, 14h. Om. 



22 


Sum. 


5 


7 11 


1 28 


23 


Alon. 


4 59 


7 11 


1 53 


24 


Tues. 


4 58 


7 11 


2 18 


25 


Wed. 


4 58 


7 10 


2 56 


26 


Thurs. 


4 57 


7 10 


3 31 


27 


Frid. 


4 57 


7 10 


sets. 


28 


Sat. 


4 56 


7 10 


8 10 



Title of Baronet first conferred, 1611. 

Napoleon I, crowned King of Italy, 1805. 

Bishop Jewel, born, 1522. 

Battle of V/inchester, 1864. 

Fort Erie, captured, 1813. 

Dante, poet, born, 1265. 

Noah Webster, died, 1843. 



29) 6th Sunday after Easter. John 15. Day's length, 14h. 8m. 



29 


Sun. 


4 56 


7 10 


30 


Mon. 


4 55 


7 10 


31 


Tues. 


4 55 


7 10 



8 00 I Paris burned, 1871. 

9 00 j Ascension Day. 

10 2 ' Joan of Arc, burned, 1431. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5641— May 17. Lac-Beomor ; 29. Rosh- 
Chodesh Siwan. 



For the Southern States. 



11 



6th Month 



JUNE. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for tl\e Latitude of Soutl\err\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Qaavter . . 4d. 9h. SSm. Evening. 

Fall Moon 12d. Ih. 35m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 18d. 31i. 53m. Afternoon. 

New Moon 26d. 8li. 42m. Morning. 



DAY I ^'-^"^ 
Month .t Week I ii. m. 



Sun 

sets, 

h. m. 



Moou 

r. & s. 

li. in. 



CHRONOIiOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Wed. 


4 54 


7 6 


10 40 


2 


Thurs. 


4 54 


7 6 


11 16 


3 


Frid. 


4 53 


7 7 


11 54 


4 


Sat. 


4 53 


7 7 


morn. 



Battle of Seven Pines, 1862. 

Battle of Cold Harbor, 1864. 

S. A. Douglas, died, 1861. [Robsart, 1550. 

Lord R. Dudley, Earl of Leicester, marr'd A. 



23) Whitsunday. 



John 14. 



Day's length, 14h. 16m. 



5 


Sun. 


4 52 


7 8 


12 22 


6 


Mou. 


4 52 


7 8 


12 50 


7 


Tues. 


4 51 


7 9 


1 31 


8 


Wed. 


4 51 


7 9 


2 10 


9 


Thurs. 


4 51 


7 9 


2 35 


10 


Frid. 


4 51 


7 9 


3 10 


11 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


3 49 



J. Pradier, Sculptor, died, 1852. 

Surrender of Memphis, Tenu., 1862. 

First American Congress, at New York, 1765. 

Emperor Nero, died, 68, Rome. 

Charles Dickens, died, 1870. 

Battle of Big Bethel, 1861. 



24) Trinity Sunday. 



John 3. 



Day's length, I4h. 48m. 



12 


Sun. 


4 50 


7 10 


rises. 


13 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


8 50 


14 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


9 31 


15 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 05 


16 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 38 


17 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 05 


18 


Sat. 


4 49 


7 11 


11 36 



Harriett Martineau, Novelist, born, 1802, 

General Scott, born, 1786. 

St. Basil, the Great, 379. 

Magna Charter, 1215. 

Edward I, of England, born, 1239. 

Corpus Christi. 

War declared against Great Britain, 1812. 



25) 1st Sunday after Trinity. Luke 16. Day's length, 14h. 22m. 

Kersarge sink the Alabama, 1864. 
St. Silverius, Pope and Martyr, 538. 
Anthonj' Collins, born, 1676. 
Napoleon I, abdicated, 1815. 
Battle of Solferino, 1859. 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist. 
Battle of Bannochburn. 



19 


Sun. 


4 49 


7 11 


morn. 


20 


Mon. 


4 49 


7 11 


12 15 


21 


Tues. 


4 48 


7 12 


12 46 


22 


Wed. 


4 49 


7 11 


1 19 


23 


Thurs. 


4 49 


7 11 


1 54 


24 


Frid. 


4 49 


7 11 


2 34 


25 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


3 17 



26) 2nd Sunday after Trinity. Luke 14. Day's length, 14h. 50m, 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



Sun. 


4 50 


7 10 


sets. 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


7 54 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


8 38 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


9 8 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


9 40 



Dr. Phillip Doddrige, born, 1702. 
John Murray, Publisher, died, 1843. 
Queen Victoria, crowned, 1838, 
St. Peter the Apostle, 68. 
Bishop Gavin Dunbar, died, 1547. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5641— June 3. and 4. Shebuoth ; 27. and 28. 
Rosh-Chodesh Tamus, 



12 



EicHARD Feotschee's Almaxag a^'d Garden Manual 



7th Month. 



JULY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Soutl:\erii States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter id. llh. oom. Afternoon. 

Full Moon lid. 8h. 52m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 18d. 12h. 12m. Morning. 

New Moon 2od. llh. 58m. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Week 



Sun 
rises. 

h. m. 



[ Moon 

I r. & 3. 



CHROXOIiOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS 



Frid. 
Sat. 



4 50 
4 51 



7 10 1 10 11 i Battle of Malvern Hill. 1862. 

7 9 llO 39 I Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Marv. 



27) 3rd Sunday after Trinitatis. Luke 15. Da:\'"s length, llh. 18m. 



3 


Sun. 


4 51 


7 9 


10 10 


Quebec founded, 1608. 


4 


Mon. 


4 51 


7 9 


11 50 


Independence of the United States, 1776. 


o 


Tnes. 


4 51 


7 9 


morn. 


Queen Magdalen of Scotland, died. 1537. 


6 


Wed. 


4 52 


7 8 


12 34 


Th. More. Chancellor of Engl., beheaded, 1535 


7 


Thurs. 


4 52 


7 8 


1 4 


Dr. Th. Blacklock, "the blind poet," died 1791 


8 


Frid. 


4 52 


7 8 


1 45 


John de la Fontaine, born, 1621. 


9 


Sat. 


4 53 


"i ~ 


2 44 


Zachary Taylor, died, 1850. 



28 j 4th Sunday after Trinity, 



Luke 6. 



Day's len^h, 13h. 14m. 



10 


Sun. 


4 53 


7 7 


2 28 


11 


Mon. 


4 54 


7 6 


rises. 


12 


Tubs. 


4 54 


7 6 


7 58 


13 


Wed. 


4 55 


7 5 


8 36 


14 


Thurs. 


4 56 


7 4 


9 6 


15 


Frid. 


4 56 


7 4 


9 44 


16 


Silt. 


4 57 


7 3 


10 4 



John Calvin, theologian, born, 1509. 

J. Q. Adams, born, 1767. 

Eobert Stevenson, Engineer, &c., died, 1850. 

Pope John, III. died, 573. 

John Hunter, eminent Surgeon, bom, 1728. 

St, Svrithin's Day. 

Great riot in New York citv 1363. 



29 1 5th Sunday after Trinity 



Luke 



Day's length, 14h. 6m. 



17 


Sun. 


4 57 


7 3 


10 31 


18 


Men. 


4 58 


7 2 


11 2 


19 


Tnes. 


4 58 


7 2 


11 36 


20 


Wed. 


4 59 


7 1 


morn. 


21 


Thurs. 


5 


7 


12 22 


22 


Frid. 


5 1 


6 59 


1 6 


23 


Sat. 


5 1 


6 59 


1 50 



Dr. Isaac "Watts, bom, 1647. 

St. Symphorosia and her 7 sons, ^Martyrs, 120. 

St. Vincent de Paul, confessor, 1660. 

Confederate Congress met at Eichmond, 1861 

Battle of Bull Ptun, 1861. 

Urania discovered, 1824. 

First Olympiad, 776, B. C. 



30) 6th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 



Day's length, 13h. o6m. 



24 


Sun. 


5 2 


6 58 


2 47 


25 


Mon. 


D 


6 o8 


2 46 


26 


Tues. 


5 3 


6 57 


sets. 


27 


Wed. 


5 4 


6 56 


7 43 


28 


Thurs. 


5 4 


6 56 


8 6 


29 


Frid. 


5 5 


6 55 


8 35 


30 


Sat. 


5 6 


6 54 


9 3 



CuiTan, born, 1750. 

St. James the Great. 

Dog-davs begin. 

Atlantic Cable, laid, 1866. 

Battle before Atlanta, Ga., 1864. 

Albert I, Emperor of Germany, born, 1289. 

Westtield explosion, N. Y. Harbor, 1871. 



31) 7th Sunday after Trinity. 



Mark. 



Day's length, llh. 8m, 



31 I Sun. I 5 7 I 6 53 I 9 35 1 St. Ignatius, Loyola, died, 1556. 

Jewish Festiyals and Fasts.— 5641— July 14. Shiyoh osor Betamus 
27. Rosh-Chodesh Ab. 



r 



For the Southern States. 



13 



8th Month. 



AUGUST. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



DAY 

OF 

Mouth & Week 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 2cl. 41i. 21m. 

Full Moon 9cl. 31i. 45m. 

Lust Quarter 16d, llh. 3€m. 

New Moon 24d. 3h. 24-m. 



Evening. 
Afternoon. 
Forenoon. 
Afternoon. 



8ua t! 

rises, j s 

h. m. 1 h. 



moon 
r. & s. 

h. m. 



CHRO]VOIiOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS, 



1 


Mon. 


5 7 


o 53 


10 6 


2 


Tues. 


5 8 


5 52 


10 42 


3 


Wed, 


5 9 


5 51 


11 17 


4 


Thurs, 


5 10 


5 50 


morn. 


5 


Frid. 


5 11 


5 49 


12 4 


6 


Sat. 


5 12 


5 48 


1 7 



Harriet Lee, Novelist, died, 1851. 
Mehemed Ali, Pasha of Egypt, died, 1849. 
Crown Point taken, 1759. 
John Bauim, Irish Novelist, died, 1842. 
First Atlantic Cable landed, 1858. 
Transfiguration of our Lord. 



32) 8th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 7. Day's length, 13h. 34m. 



7 


Sun. 


5 13 


5 47 


2 17 


8 


Mon. 


5 13 


5 47 


2 31 


9 


Tues. 


5 14 


5 46 


rises. 


10 


Wed. 


5 15 


5 45 


7 6 


11 


Thurs. 


5 16 


5 44 


7 36 


12 


Frid. 


5 17 


5 43 


8 3 


13 


Sat. 


5 18 


5 42 


8 35 



Leonidas, Spartan Hero, slain, 480 B. C. 
Fr. Hutcheson, Moral Philos. , born, 1694. 
Isaac Walton, born, 1593. 
Battle of Weisenburg, 1870. 
Viscount Kowland Hill, born, 1772. 
Pope Gregory, IX, died, 1241. 
Earthquake in Scotland, 1816. 



33) 


9th Sunday after Trinity 


Luke 16. Day's length, 13h. 22m 


14 


Sun. 


5 19 


5 41 


9 4 


G. Coleman, the elder, Dramatist, died, 1794 


15 


Mon. 


5 20 


5 40 


9 41 


Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 


16 


Tues. 


5 21 


5 39 


10 17 


Battle of Bennington, 1777. 


17 


Wed. 


5 22 


5 38 


11 


Frederick, the Great, died, 1786. 


18 


Thurs. 


5 23 


5 37 


morn. 


John, Earl Kussell, born, 1792. 


19 


Frid. 


5 24 


5 36 


12 12 


Battle of Gravelotte, 1870. 


20 


Sat. 


5 25 


5 35 


1 19 


Eobert Herrick, English Poet, born, 1591. 



34) 10th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 19. Day's length, 13h. 22m. 



21 


Sun. 


5 26 


5 34 


2 25 


22 


Mon. 


5 27 


5 33 


3 31 


23 


Tues. 


5 28 


5 32 


4 32 


24 


Wed. 


5 29 


5 31 


sets. 


25 


Thurs. 


5 30 


5 30 


6 52 


26 


Frid. 


5 31 


5 29 


7 21 


27 


Sat. 


5 32 


5 28 


7 52 



Lady Mary Wortley Montague, died, 1762. 
Dr. F. J. Gall, founder of Phrenology, died, 
Wallace, beheaded, 1305. [1828. 

St. Bartholomew, Apostel. 
25th or 27th, Landing of Ceesar in England, 
Sir Eob. Walpole, born, 1676. [55 B. C. 

Battle of Long Island, 1776. 



35) 11th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 18. Day's length, 12h. 54m. 



29 
30 
31 



Sun. 

Mon. 
Tues. 
Wed. 



5 33 
5 34 
5 35 
5 36 



5 27 
5 26 
5 25 
5 24 



8 26 

9 8 
10 
10 53 



Leigh Hunt, died, 1859. 
John Locke, Philosopher, born, 1632. 
Union defeat at Eichmond, Ky. 
John Bunyan, died, 1683. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5641— August 4. Tisho beab ; 6. Sabbath 
Nachmu ; 25. and 26. Kosh-Chodesh Elul. 



14 



Richard Frotschee's Almanac ais^d Garden Manual 



9th Month. 



SEPTEMBER, 



30 Days. 



Calculated for tl:\e Latitude of Soutl^ern States, 



MOON'S PHASES 

First Quarter Id. 8h. 41m. Morning. 

Full Moon. 7cl. llh. 18m. Evening. 

Last Quarter .... .15d. 2h. 40m. Morning. 

New Moon 23d. Gh. .33m. Morning. 

First Quarter 30d. 4h. 27m. Evening. 



DAY i ^^"^ t ^^" 
Month &Weekl h. in. 1 li. m. 



Moon 

r. & s. 

h. m. 



1 iThurs. 

2 Frid. 

3 'Sat, 



5 37 
5 38 
5 39 



6 23 [11 38 
6 22 morn. 
6 21 112 46 



CHROiVOLiOGY 

— OF — 

IMFORTANr EVENTy. 



Napoleon, III, captured at Sedan, 1870. 
Great Fire in London, 1666. 
Cromwell, died. 1658. 



36) 12th Sunday after Trinity. Mark. 7. Day's length, 12h. 40m, 



4 


§1111. 


5 40 


6 20 


1 58 


5 


Mon. 


5 42 


6 18 


3 9 


6 


Tues. 


5 43 


6 17 


4 19 


7 


Wed, 


5 44 


6 16 


rises. 


8 


Thurs. 


5 45 


6 15 


6 22 


9 


Frid. 


5 46 


6 14 


6 50 


10 


Sat. 


5 47 


6 13 


7 24 



Pindar, Lyric Poet, 518 B. C. 
Confederates entered Maryland, 1862. 
George Alex. Stevens, Writer, died, 1784. 
Independence of Brazil, 1822. 
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. 
Jan^es, IV, of Scotland, killed, 1513. 
Mnngo Park, African Traveler, born, 1771. 



3^) 13th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 10. Day's length, 12h. 24m. 



11 


§%iIE. 


5 48 


12 


Mon. 


5 40 


13 


Tues. 


5 51 


14 


Vv^ed. 


5 52 


15 


Thurs. 


5 53 


16 


Frid. 


5 54 


17 


Sat. 


5 55 




James Thomson, Poet, born, 1700. 

St. Guy, Confessor, 11th century. 

Sir Wm. Cecil, Lord Burleigh, born, 1520. 

Uprising of the People of New Orleans against the usurping gov! 

Capture of Harper's Ferry by S'ewallJaciison, 

Gabriel Dan'l Fahrenheit, died. 1736. [1862, 

Battle of Antietam, 1862. 



38) i4th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 17. Day's length, 12h. 8m. 



18 


Slin. 


5 56 


6 4 


12 41 


19 


Mon. 


5 57 


6 3 


1 40 


20 


Tues. 


■5 58 


6 2 


2 40 


21 


Wed. 


5 59 


6 1 


3 41 


22 


Thurs. 


6 


6 


4 43 


23 


Frid. 


6 1 


5 59 


sets. 


24 


Sat. 


6 2 


5 58 


6 19 



Gilbert Bishoo Burnet. Hist'an, born, 1643. 

First Battle of Paris, 1870. 

Alexander, the Great, born, 356 B. C. 

St. Mathew, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Beginning of Autumn. 

Wm. Upcott, Manuscr. Collector, died, 1845. 

Pepin, King of France, 768. 



39) 


15th Sunday aftei; Trinity. Matth. 6. Day's length, llh. 54m 


25 


§11 sa. 


6 3 


5 57 


6 52 


Pacific Ocean, discovered, 1513. 


26 


Mon. 


6 4 


5 56 


7 35 


Saints Cyprian and Justina, Martyrs, 304. 


27 


Tues. 


6 5 


5 55 


8 20 


Strassburg fell, 1870. 


28 


Wed. 


6 6 


5 54 


9 14 


Sir Wm. Jones, Oriental Scholar, born, 1746. 


29 


Thurs. 


6 7 


5 53 


10 16 Michaelmas Day. 


30 


Frid. 


6 8 


5 52 


11 23 


Yorktown invested, 1781. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5642— September 24. and 25. Hashonoh. 



For the Southern States. 



15 



10th Month. 



OCTOBER. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Soutl:\ern States, 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 7d. 8h. 38m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 14d. 9h. 5m. Evening. 

New Moon 22d. Oh. 10m. Evening. 

First Quarter 29d. llh. 26m. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Week 



Sun 
rises. 

h. m. 



Moon 
r. & s. 



CHRONOliOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS 



1 I Sat. I 6 9 I 5 51 I morn. I Fulton's first steamboat trip, 1807. 

40) 16th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 7. Day's length, llh. 40m. 

Andre' executed as a spy, 1780. 
Black Hawk, died, 1838. 
Battle of Germantown, 1777. 



2 


Smsi. 


6 10 


5 50 


12 27 


3 


Mon. 


6 11 


5 49 


1 36 


4 


Tues. 


6 12 


5 48 


2 45 


5 


Wed. 


6 14 


5 46 


3 46 


6 


Thnrs. 


6 15 


5 45 


4 48 


7 


Frid. 


6 16 


5 44 


rises. 


8 


Sat. 


6 17 


5 43 


5 58 



Horace Walpole, born, 1717. 
Jenny Lind, born, 1820. 
Margaret, Maid of Norway, died, 
Battle of Perry ville, K'y., 1862. 



1290. 



9 


§un. 


6 18 


5 42 


6 35 


10 


Mon. 


6 19 


5 41 


7 34 


11 


Tues. 


6 20 


5 40 


8 19 


12 


Wed. 


6 21 


5 39 


9 16 


13 


Thurs. 


6 23 


5 37 


10 17 


14 


Frid. 


6 24 


5 36 


11 19 


15 


Sat. 


6 25 


5 35 


morn. 



41) 17th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 14. Day's length, llh. 24m. 

Great Fire in Chicago, 1871. 

Benjamin West, Painter, born, 1738. 

America discovered, 1492. 

St. Wilfrid, Bishop of York, 709. 

Battle of Queenstown, 1812. 

Battle of Jena, 1806. 

Virgil, Latin Poet, born, 70 B. C. 

42) 18th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. Day's length, llh. 10m. 

Marie Antoinette, beheaded, 1793. 

Burgoyne, surrendered, 1777. 

Last State Lottery drawn, in Engl., 1826. 

Oornwallis, surrendered, 1781. 

M. Dahl, Swed. Portrait Painter, died, 1743. 

Battle of Trafalgar, 1805. 

Charles Martel, died, 741. 

43) 19th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. Day's length, lOh.. 44m. 

Dr. John Jortin, Critic, born, 1698. 

Daniel Webster, died, 1852. 

Dr. James Beattie, Poet, born, 1735. 

Hogarth, died, 1765. 

Cuba dicovered, 1492. 

Battle at White Plains, 1776. 

Surrender of Metz, 1870. 

44) 20th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. Day's length, lOh. 40m. 

Solomon's Temple dedicated, 1004 B. C. 
All Hallow Eve. 



16 


Stan. 


6 25 


5 35 


12 15 


17 


Mon.' 


6 26 


5 34 


1 16 


18 


Tues. 


6 27 


5 33 


2 25 


19 


Wed. 


6 28 


5 32 


3 18 


20 


Thurs. 


6 29 


5 31 


4 29 


21 


Frid. 


6 30 


5 30 


5 35 


22 


Sat. 


6 32 


5 28 


sets. 



23 


Stan. 


6 33 


5 27 


5 52 


24 


Mon. 


6 34 


5 26 


6 46 


25 


Tues. 


6 35 


5 25 


7 42 


26 


V/ed. 


6 36 


5 24 


8 45 


27 


Thurs. 


6 37 


5 23 


9 41 


28 


Frid. 


6 38 


5 22 


10 32 


29 


Sat. 


6 39 


5 21 


11 33 



Sun, 


6 40 


5 20 


morn. 


Mon. 


6 41 


5 19 


12 21 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5642— October 3. Jom Kipur ; 8. and 9. first 

days of Suckoth ; 14. Hosheinoh-raboh ; 15. Shemini Azereth ; 16. 

Simchas Thorah ; 23. and 24. Rosh-chodesh Shewan. 



16 



EiCHAED Frotschee's Almanac and Gaeden Manual 



11th Month. 



NOVEMBER. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for tl\e Latitude of Sout]:\eri\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 5d. Sh. 41m. Evening. 

Last Quarter 13d. 4h. 40m. Evening. 

New Moon 21d. llh. Om. Forenoon. 

First Quarter 28d. 6h. 40m. Morning. 



day 

OF 

Month & 



Sun 
rises. 

h. m. 



Sun 
sets. 

h. m. 



Moou 
r. & s. 

h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

—OP- 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Tues. 


6 42 


5 18 


1 33 


2 


Wed, 


6 43 


5 17 


2 42 


3 


Thurs. 


6 44 


5 16 


3 52 


4 iFrid. 


6 45 


5 15 


5 11 


5 


Sat. 


6 45 


5 15 


rises. 



All Saints Day. 

All Souls Day. 

Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, 1148. 

Qeorge^Peabody, died, 1869. 

The American 74 launched, 1782. 



45) 21st Sunday after Trinity. John 4. Day's length, lOh. 28m 

Battle of Port Royal, 1861. 

John Kyrle, "The man of Ross," died, 1724. 

Cortez entered Mexico, 1519. 

Great Fire in Boston, 1872. 

Mahomet, Arabian Prophet, born, 570. 

Martinmas. 

Sherman left Atlanta. 1864. 



6 


Smii. 


6 46 


5 14 


5 29 


7 


Mou. 


6 47 


5 13 


6 17 


8 


Tues. 


6 48 


5 12 


7 19 


9 


Wed. 


6 49 


5 11 


8 17 


10 


Thurs. 


6 50 


5 10 


9 15 


11 


Frid. 


6 51 


5 9 


10 12 


12 


Sat. 


6 52 


5 8 


11 10 



46) 22nd Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 18. Day's length, lOh. 58m. 



French entered Vienna, 1805. 

Sir Chas. Lyell, Geologist, born, 1797. 

John Keppler, great Astronomer, died 1630. 

Tiberius, Roman Emperor, born, 42 B. C. 

Suez Canal opened, 1869. 

Fort Lee taken by the British, 1776. 

St. Elizabeth of Hungary, Widow, 1231. 



13 


SlOl. 


6 53 


5 7 


morn. 


14 


Mon. 


6 54 


5 6 


12 


15 


Tues. 


6 54 


5 6 


1 


16 


Wed. 


6 55 


5 5 


2 7 


17 


Thurs. 


6 56 


5 4 


3 2 


18 


Frid. 


6 57 


5 3 


4 1 


19 


Sat. 


6 57 


5 3 


4 56 



47) 23rd Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. Day's length, lOh. 14m. 



20 


§UI1. 


6 58 


5 2 


5 50 


Thomas Chatterton, poet born, 1752. 


21 


Mon. 


6 59 


5 1 


sets. 


Presentation of the Blessed Virgin. 


22 


Tues. 


6 59 


5 1 


6 2 


Professor Dugald Steward, born, 1753. 


23 


Wed. 


7 


5 


7 4 


Th. Henderson, Prof of A-stron., died, 1844. 


24 


Thurs. 


7 1 


4 59 


8 17 


Battle of Lookout Mountain. 1863. 


25 


Frid. 


7 1 


4 59 


9 32 


Evacuation of New York. 1783. 


26 


Sat. 


7 2 


4 58 


10 40 


John Elwes, noted miser, died, 1789. 



4§) 1st Sunday in Advent. 



Matth. 18. 



Day's length, 9h. 56m. 



I — 



27 Sitn. 1 7 



Mon. 

Tu^^.s. [ 7 3 

Wed. I 7 4 



Washington Irving, died. 1859. 

Sir Phillip Sidney, Poet, born, 1554. 

13. S. took possession of Louisiana, 1803. 



1 4 58 


11 45 1 


i 4 57 


morn. 1 


4 57 


12 37 


4 56 


1 36 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. 



-5641— November 22. 
Kislev, 



and 23. Rosh-Codesh 



Foe the Southern States. 



17 



12th Month. 



DECEMBER. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for tl:\e Latitude of Soutl\err\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 5d. llh. 52m. Forenoon. 

Last Quarter 13d. 2h. 43m. Forenoon. 

New Moon 20d. 12h, 46m. Evening. 

First Quarter 27d. 3h. 20m. Afternoon. 



Month & Week h, m. 


Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 


Moou 
r. &8. 

h. m. 


CHRONOLOGY 

—OP- 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 
2 
3 


Thurs. 

Frid. 

Sat. 


7 5 
7 6 
7 6 


4 55 
4 54 
4 54 


2 50 

3 50 
5 3 


Princess A. Comnenaf Historian, born, 1083. 

Hernan Cortes, died, 1547. 

Robert Bloomfield, Poet, born, 1776. 



49) 2iid Sunday in Advent. 



Luke 21. 



Day's length, 9h. 46m. 



4 


Sun. 


7 7 


4 53 


6 19 


5 


Mon. 


7 7 


4 53 


rises. 


6 


Tues. 


7 7 


4 53 


5 35 


7 


Wed. 


7 8 


4 52 


6 57 


8 


Thurs. 


7 8 


4 52 


7 53 


9 


Frid. 


7 8 


4 52 


8 49 


10 


Sat. 


7 9 


4 51 


9 47 



Pope John, XXII, died, 1334. 

Carlyle, born, 1795. 

St. Nicholas, Archbishop, of Myra, 342. 

Cicero, Roman Orator, assassinated, 43 B. C. 

Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin. 

Milton, born, 1608. 

Louis Napoleon, elected President, 1848. 



50) 3rd Sunday in Advent. 



Matth. 11. 



Day's length, 9h. 42m. 



Sun, 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Frid. 

Sat. 



10 45 

11 42 
morn. 

12 38 

1 33 

2 31 

3 29 



Louis, Prince of Cond^, died, 1686. 

St. Columba, Abbot in Ireland, 584. 

Battle of Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Washington, died, 1799. 

David Don, Botanist, died, 1841. 

Great Fire in New York, 1835. 

Ludw. Beethoven, emin. Compos., born, 1770. 



31) 4th Sunday in Advent. 



John 1, 



Day's length, 9ht 38m , 



18 


Sun. 


7 11 


4 49 


4 27 


19 


Mon. 


7 11 


4 49 


5 26 


20 


Tues. 


7 11 


4 49 


6 23 


21 


Wed. 


7 12 


4 48 


sets. 


22 


Thurs. 


7 11 


4 49 


6 53 


23 


Frid. 


7 11 


4 49 


8 6 


24 


Sat. 


7 11 


4 49 


9 19 



St. Winebald, Abbot and Confessor, 760. 

Capt. W. Ed. Parry, Arct. Nav., born, 1790. 

Secession ordinance passed in S. Carolina, '60. 

St. Thomas, Apostle. 

Emp. Vetellius, beheaded at Rome, 69 A. D. 

Newton, born, 1642. 

Treaty of Ghent, 1814. 



52) Sunday on Christmas. 



Luke 2. 



Day's length, 9h. 40m. 



25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Frid. 

Sat. 



50 


10 28 


50 


11 29 


50 


morn. 


50 


12 24 


51 


1 19 


51 


2 20 


51 


3 19 



Nativity of our Lord. Christmas Day. 

Battle of Trenton, 1776. 

St. John, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Macauley, died, 1859. 

Union repulse at Vicksburg, Miss., 1862. 

Titus, Roman Emperor, born, 41, A. D. 

Battle of Murfreesboro, 1862. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5642— December 17. Chanukah ; 22. and 23. 
Eosh-Chodesh Thebeth. 



18 EiCHAED Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

■ The size depends upon the purposes for which it is intended ; whether 
the family is large or small, and the time which can be devoted to its 
cultivation. The most suitable soil for a garden is a light loam. When 
the soil is too heavy, it ought to be made light by applying stable man- 
ure, and working up the ground thoroughly. Trenching as done in 
Europe, or North, is not advisable, at least not where there is any coco, 
as by trenching the roots of this pest will get so deeply incorporated 
with the soil that it will be very hard afterwards to get rid of it. Ex- 
posure towards the east is desirable. If there are one or more large 
trees in the garden, or on the immediate outside^ their shade can be 
used in which to sow Celery-,' Cabbage and other seeds during the hot 
summer months, which will be an advantage. The seed beds for this 
purpose should be so arranged, as to receive only the morning or 
evening sun. It is of the greatest importance that the ground should 
be well drained, otherwise it will be impossible to raise good vegetables. 
The most reliable manure for general purposes is well decomposed 
stable or barnyard manure. Manure from cows will suit best for light 
sandy soil, horse manure for heay>^ stiff clay lands. Eor special pur- 
poses, Peruvian Guano, Blood Fertilizer, Raw Bone, Cotton seed meal 
and other commercial manures may be employed with advantage. 
Where the land is very sandy, cotton seed meal has the most lasting- 
effect. For quick growing crops such as Melons, Cucumbers, etc., the 
Blood Fertilizer and Guano applied in the hills is very good. Soap 
suds are good for Celery; it is astonishing to perceive the difference in 
the size of those stalks which are watered every few days with the suds 
and others on the same ground, which are not. Wood ashes are best for 
Peas, either used as a top dressing, when the peas just come out of the 
ground, or else sprinkled in the rows when planted. The New Orleans 
market gardeners raise as fine vegetables as can be produced any- 
where, in fact some varieties can not be excelled, and very few gardeners 
use an^^thing but stable manure. 

Rotatiou of crops is another important item. Beets, Carrots and 
other roots should not be grown in succession on the same ground, but 
should be changed to those which grow above ground, such as Lettuce, 
Beans, Peas, etc. Good seed, good ground and good cultivation are 
essential in order to raise good vegetables. When plants are up, the 
ground should be stirred frequently ; weeds ought not to be suffered 
to go into seed, but should be destroyed as soon as they appear. Hoe- 
ing and working the young crops during dry weather is very beneficial, 
because the weeds are then easily killed, and hoeing the ground will 
make it retain moisture better than if it were left alone. 



For the Southern States. 



19 




TEE HOT BED, 



1 



Owing to the open Winters in the South, hot beds are not so much 
used as in the North, except to raise such tender plants, as Eggplants, 
Tomatoes and Peppers. There is little forcing of vegetables done here, 
except as regards Cucumbers and Lettuce ; and if we do not have any 
hard frosts the latter do.es better in the open ground than under glass. 
To make a hot bed is a very simple thing, anyone who has the use of 
tools can make the wooden frame, the sashes may be obtained at any 
sash factory. I consider a wooden frame from five to six feet wide, and 
ten feet six inches long, a very good size, it should be at least six inches 
higher at the back than in the front, and covered by three sashes 3 2x5 
feet. "The manure ought not to be over one month old, should be 
thrown together in a heap, and when commencing to heat, be worked 
over with a fork, and all the long and short manure evenly mixed. 
In this State the ground is generally low, and to retain the heat of the 
manure for a longer time, it is best to put the manure on top of the 
ground. That is, make a bank two feet longer and two wider than the 
frame ; keep the edges straight and the corners firm when thrown up 
about eighteen inches, trample the manure down to six or eight inches, 
then put on another layer of eighteen inches and trample down again ; 
place thereon the frame and sash and fill in six inches of good earth. 
After about five days stir the ground to kill any weeds which may have 
come up, then sow the seeds. In lower Louisiana the ground is too wet 
to dig out eighteen inches deep and then throw in the manure and 
trample down as recommended in the North. A few hard rains, such 
as we frequently have in winter, and the manure would become so 
soaked beneath the ground, that the heat would be gone. Another 
advantage when the frame is put above the ground is, that it will go 
down with the manure gradually, and there remains always the same 
space between the glass and the ground. If the ground is dug out and 
the manure put into the frame, the ground will sink down so lov/ after 
a short time, that the sun will have little effect upon it, and plants will 
become spindly. 



20 EicHARD Frotschee's Almaxac and Garden Manual 



SOWING SEEDS. 

Some seeds are sown at once, where they are to remain and mature. 
Others are sown in seed beds and transplanted afterwards. Seeds 
should be covered according to their size, a coTering of earth twice the 
size of the seed is about the maximum. Some seeds, such as Beans, 
Corn and Peas, can be covered from one to two inches, and they will 
come up well. Here is a difference again. Wrinkled Peas and Sugar 
Corn have 'to be covered lighter and more carefully than Marrowfat 
Peas or the common varieties of Corn. It depends upon the nature of 
the soil, season of the year, etc. For instance, in heavy wet soil seeds 
have to be covered lighter than in sandy light ground. Seeds which 
are sown during summer in the open ground, such as Beets and Carrots, 
should be soaked over night in water and rolled in ashes or plaster 
before sowing ; they will come up quicker. When they are sown in a 
seed bed, the ground should be light enough not t-o bake after a rain. 
Some varieties of seeds require shade when sown during the Summer, 
such as Cauliflower, Celen,- and Lettuce. Care should be taken to have 
the shade at least three feet from the ground, and shade only after the 
sun has been on the bed for two or three hours, and remove again early 
in the afternoon, so the plants may become sturdy ; if too much shaded 
they will be drawn up, long legged and not fit to be set out in the open 
ground. The most successful cabbage planters in this neighborhood 
sow their seed in the open ground, toward the end of July and during 
August, and give them no shade, but water, and keep the ground moist 
from the day of sowing till the plants are transplanted. Seed should 
be sown thinly in the seed bed ; if plants come up too thickly they are 
apt to damp off. 

Lettuce seed should be sprouted during the hot months, before 
sowing, according to directions given for June. 

To sow Turnips on a large scale during late summer and early fall 
months, the ground should be prepared in advance, and the seed sown 
just before or during a rain. Small pieces of ground, of course, can be 
sown at any time and watered afterwards. For covering all kinds of 
seeds a fork is preferable to a rake ; with either implement care must 
be taken not to cover the seeds too deep. Beans, Peas and Corn are 
covered with the hoe. Some fine seeds, such as Thyme or Tobacco, 
are covered enough when pressed with the back of the spade to the 
ground. The seedsman is often blamed for selling seeds, which have 
not come up, when the same are perfectly good, but perhaps through 
ignorance, the party, by whom they were sown, placed them too deep, 
or too shallow in the ground ; or the ground may have been just moist 
enough to swell the seeds, and they failed to come up. At other times 
washing rains after sowing beat the ground and form a crust that the 
seeds are not able to penetrate ; or if there is too much fresh manure 
in the ground, it will burn the seed, and destroy its vitality. 

Where seeds, such as Beans, Cucumbers, Melons and Squash, are 
planted before it is warm enough, they are very apt to rot if it rains. 



For the Southern States. 



21 



The followiDg Tables will be found useful to the 
Gardener, Farmer & Amateur. 



AVERAGE QUANTITY OF SEED SOWN TO AN ACRE. 



In Drills. 

Dwarf Beans 1 Bushel. 

Early Peas 2 

Marrowfat Peas 1| " 

Beets 4 lbs. 

Carrots 2 

Onions 6 

Potatoes, (cut tubers) 10 Bushels 

Parsnips .'4 lbs. 

Radish 5 " 

Ruta Baga l2to2 " 



Spinach 10 to 12 lbs. 

Salsify 6 to 8 " 

Turnip 1 to li " 

In Hills. 

Pole Beans 10 to 12 qts. 

Corn 8 to 10 '* 

Cucumbers 2 lbs. 

Musk Melon .. 2 " 

Water " 4 '' 

Pumpkin 5 to 6 " 

Squash 4 " 



QUANTITY OF SEED REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN LENGTH 
OF 'drill. 



Asparagus . .1 oz. to 60 feet of drill 



Beet 


.1 " 


50 


BeanSjdwarfl qt. 


100 


Carrot 


.1 oz. 


100 


Endive 


.1 " 


100 


Okra 


.1 " 


40 


Onion 


.1 " 


100 


Onion Sets 


.Iqt. 


20 



Parsley. .1 oz. to 125 feet of drill. 



Parsnips. 1 " 


150 


Peas 1 qt. 


100 


Radish... 1 oz. 


75 


Salsify... 1 " 


70 


Spinach.. 1 " 


75 


Turnip... 1 " 


150 



QUANTITY OF SEED REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN NUMBER 
OF HILLS. 



Pole Beans 1 qt. to 150 hills. 

Corn 1 " 200 " 

Cucumber 1 oz. 100 " 

Water Melon,... 1 " 40 ' " 



Musk Melon 1 oz. to 75—100 hills. 
Pumpkins... 1 " 50— 80 " 
Squash 1 " 60— 80 " 



Table showing the amount of seed necessary for an acre, and the 
number of pounds in a bushel. 



Red Clover. .. 

White Dutch Clover . .60 

Lucerne or Alfalfa 

Clover 60 

Alsike Clover 60 



No. of ft No. of ft 
to busli. to acre. 

60 6 to 10 

5 to 8 



6 to 
4 to 



Hungarian Grass 48 20 to 30 



No of ft No. of ft 
to bush, to acre. 

Millet ....50 15 to 30 

Red Top Grass 14 7 to 14 

Orchard Grass 14 14 to 20 

Kentucky Blue Grass.. 14 14 to 28 
Buckwheat 52 25 to 52 



22 



EicHARD Feotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Descriptive Catalogue of Vegetable Seeds. 

ARTICHOKE. 

Artichaut, (Fr.) Artischoke, (Ger.) Alcachofa, (Sp.) 




Green Globe Artichoke, 



]L.arg:e Olobe. This is a very popular vegetable in the South and 
much esteemed by the native as well as the foreign population from 
the south of Euroi>e. It is extensively cultivated for the New Orleans 
market. It is best propagated from suckers which come up around the 
laige plants ; take them off during the fall and early winter months ; 
plant them four feet apart each way. Every fall the ground should be 
manured and spaded or plowed between them. If planted by seed, sow 
them in drills during winter or early spring, three inches apart and one 
foot from row to row ; cover with about one half inch of earth ; the 
following fall the plants can be transplanted and cultivated as recom- 
mended above. 

ASPARAGUS. 

AsPERGE, (Fr.) Sparged, (Ger.) Esparagos, (Sp.) 

Fiirple Top. The Asparagus is not extensively cultivated in the 
South, not that it is not liked well enough, but from the fact that it 
does not succeed as well as in moi-e Northern latitudes. It seems that 
it is short lived ; the roots giving out soon, or throwing up very small 
shoots. 

The ground should be well manured and prepared before either 
the roots or seeds are planted. For this climate the sowing of seed is 
preferable. Boots are generally imported from the North, and I have 



For the Southern States. 



23 



found that the roots raised here, one year old, are as strong as those 
received from the North three years old. Plant the seed in early spring. 
Soak over night in water, plant in rows or rather hills one foot apart 
and two feet between ; put from four to five seeds in each hill, when 
well up thin out to two plants. The following winter when the stalks 
are cut off, cover with a heavy coat of well rotted manure, and a sprink- 
ling of salt ; fish-brine will answer the same purpose. In the spring 
fork in the manure between the rows, and keep clean of weeds. The 
same treatment should be repeated every year. The bed should not 
be cut before being three years established. Care must be taken not 
to cut the stalks too soon in the fall of the year, not until we have had 
a frost, if cut before it will cause the roots to throw up young shoots, 
which will weaken them. 

BUSH BEANS. 
Culture. 

Place in rows eighteen inches apart, plant from end of -February, 
and for succession every two or three weeks to May ; during June and 
July, Bush Beans planted in this latitude will not produce much. 
August and September are good months in which to plant again; 
they will produce abundantly till killed by the frost. Do not cover the 
seeds more than two inches. 

POLE BEANS. 

Lima Beans should not be planted before the ground has become 
warm in spring. Strong poles ought to be set in the ground from 
four to six feet apart and the ground drawn around them, before the 
seed is planted. It is always best to plant after a. rain and with {he eye 
of the bean down. The other varieties can be planted flat, and not 
more than three to four feet apart, and hilled after, they are up. Do 
not cover the seeds more than two inches ; one inch is enough for the 
Southern Prolific. 



BEANS.— (Dwarf, Snap or Bush.) 

Haricots, (Fr.) Bohne, (Ger.) Frijolenano, (Sp.) 



Extra Early Six Weeks or New- 

ington Wonder. 
Early Valentine Bed Speckled. 
Early Mohawk Six Weeks. 
Early Yellow Six Weeks. 
German Dwarf Wax. 



White Kidney, 

Bed Speckled French. 

Early China Bed Eye. 

Bed Kidney. 

Dwarf Golden Wax, (new.) 



Extra Early Six lll^eelis or Newing^tou WoBider is very 
early, but the pods, are small and round. Good for family use. 

Early Taientine, one of the best varieties, pods round, tender 
and quite productive ; not much planted for the market. 

Early Mohawk Six IfFeeks. This is a long podded variety 
and considered very hardy, it is used to a large extent for the market, 
for the first planting ; very productive. 



24 EiCHABD Feotschee's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Early Yellow Six IVeelis* This is the most popular sort 
among marliet-gardeners, pods flat and long. A very good bearer. 

Oerman Divarf Wax., A new variety which is unsurpassed as 
a snap bean. Pods are of a wax color and have no strings. Quite produc- 
tive. Has come into general cultivation, cannot be too highly recom- 
mended. 

liVhite Kidney. A good strong growing variety, not much planted. 

Red Speckled French, is another strong growing variety plan- 
ted a good deal for the New Orleans market, as a second crop, being 
about ten days later than the Mohawk and Yellow Six Weeks. It is 
hardy and productive. 

Early China Red Eye, early and of good quality, but not very 
popular. 

Red Kidney. This variety is largely planted for the New Orleans 
market. It is a coarse growing variety, and much 'used for shelling 
when the pods turn yellow, so that the beans are well developed, but 
soft yet. 

JDvi^arf Crolden Wax. (New.) A dwarf variety with flat pods, 
larger than the Dwarf German Wax, entirely stringless. Seed while, 
mottled with purplish red. This variety will come into general cultiva- 
tion and will in time take the place of the black seeded Wax, being 
earlier and more productive. 

BEANS.— Pole or Running. 

Haricots a Eames, (Ft.) Stangen Bohnen, (Ger.) Feijol Vastago, (Sp.) 



German Wax or Butter. 
Southern Prolific. 
Crease Back. 



Large Lima. 
Carolina or Sewee. 
Horticultural or Wren's Egg. 
Dutch Case Knife. 

Ear^^e Eima. A well known and excellent variety, it is the best | 
shell bean known. Should have rich ground, and plenty room to grow. 

Carolina or Sewee. A variety similar to the Lima, the only 
difference is, the seeds and pods are smaller. It is generally cultivated 
being more productive than the Large Lima. 

Horticultural or Wren's Es:g, does not grow very strong, 
bears well, pods about six inches long which are roundish and very 
tender. 

Dutch Case Knife. A very good pole bean ; it is early ; pods 
broad and long, somewhat turned towards the end. 

Oerman Wax. This is a fine variety, and has the same good 
qualities as the German Dwarf Wax. Pods have a waxy appearance ; 
very succulent and tender. 

Southern Prolific. No variety will continue longer in bearing 
than this. It stands the heat of the summer better than any other, and 
is planted to succeed the other kinds. It is a very strong grower, pods 
about seven inches long, flat ; seeds dark yellow or rather light brown. 
It is the standard variety for the New Orleans market for late spring 
and summer. 

Crease Back. A variety of Pole Bean which has been cultivated 
in the South for a long time, but never has come into the trade. It is 



sM 



For the Southern States. 25 

an excellent bean, earlier than the "Southern Prolific," pods round 
with a crease in the back, from which the name. It is a good grower, 
bears abundantly and if shipped will keep better than most other kinds. 
I had some grown for me this season and offer a limited supply. 

ENGLISH BEANS. 

Feve de Marais, (Fr.) Puff Bohne, (Ger.) Haba Comun, (Sp.) 
Broad l¥iudsor. Not so much cultivated here as in some parts 
of Euroi^e. It is much liked by the i>eople of the Southern part of 
Europe. Ought to be planted during November ; as if planted in the 
spring they will not produce much. -- 

BEETS. 

Betrave, (Fr.) Eunkelruebe, (Ger.) Eemolacha, (Sp.) 



Egyptian Bed Turnip. 
Long Bed Mangel Wurtzel, 
White French Sugar. 
Silver ok Swiss Chard. 



Extra Early or Bassano. 
Simon's Early Bed Turnip. 
Early Blood Turnip. 
Long Blood. 
Half Long Blood. 

Culture, 

The ground for beets should be rich and well spaded or plowed. 
Sow in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart, cover the seed about one 
inch deep. Thin them out when about a month old to four to six inches 
apart. lu this latitude beets are sown from January till the end of 
April, and from the middle of July till the middle of November ; in fact 
some market-gardeners sow. some every month in the year. In the 
summer and fall it is well to soak the seeds over night, and roll in plaster 
before sowing. 

Extra Early or Bassano, .is the earliest variety, but not popular 
on account of its color, which is almost white when boiled. Ear- 
liness is not of so much value here, where there are beets sown and 
brought to the market the whole year round. In the North it is 
different, where the first crop of beets in the market in spring will 
bring a better price than the varieties which mature later. 




Simon's Early Red Tumip Beet. Early Blood Turnip Beet. 

Simon's Early Red Turnip. This is earlier than the Blood 
Turnip, smooth skin and of light red color, planted a good deal by the 
market-gardeners about New Orleans. 



26 



EiCHAED Protschee's Almaxac AND Gaede^t Manual 



Early Blood Ttiniip. The most popular variety for market 
puri^oses as vrell as family use. It is of a dark red color, and very tender. 

liOngr Blood, is not quite so tender as the foregoing variety- ; it is 
not planted at all for the market, and very little for family use. In the 
Xoith it is chiefly planted for ^-inter use ; here we have Turnip Beets 
the whole winter from the garden, therefore it has not the same value. 
- Half Long- Blood. A very dark red variety of a half long shape : 
a 2:ood variety-,- but not much esteemed. 





Egyptian Red Tamip Beer. TThite French Sugar Beet. 

Egyptian Red Turnip. This is a new variety sent out by 
Benary some years ago. It is verj- early, tender, deep red and of Turnip 
shape. Leaves of this variety are smaller than on others. The seeds 
are also much smaller. I recommend it and consider it an acquisition. 

Eong^ Red llangel TFnrtze!. 
This is raised for stock; it grows to a 
large size. Here in the South where 
stock is not stabled during the winter, 
the raising of root crops is much neglect- 
ed ; being very profitable for thjeir food 
it ought to be more cultivated. 

Tfliite French Sngar, is used the 
same as the foregoing ; not much 
planted. 

SHver Beet or Swiss Chard. SilA'cr Beet or Swiss Chard. 

This varietv is cultivated for its larsre succulent leaves, which are 




Fob the Southern States. 27 



used for the same purposes as Spinach. It is verj^ popular in the New 
Orleans Market. 

BORECOLE OR CURLED KALE. 

Chou-vert, (Fr.) Gruener Kohl, (Ger.) Breton, (Sp.) 

Dwarf Oernian Oreens. 

4- vegetable highly esteemed in northern part of Europe, but very 
little cultivated in this country. It requires frost to make it good. 
Treated the same as Cabbage. 

BROCCOLL 

Chou Brocoli, (Fr.) Brocoli Spargel-Kohl, (Ger.) Broculi, (Sp.) 
Purple Cape. 

Kesembles the Cauliflower, but not forming such compact heads, 
and not quite so white, being of a greenish cast. We raise such fine 
Cauliflower here, that very little Broccoli is raised. 

The Purple Cape is the most desirable variety ; cultivated the same 
as Half Early Cauliflower; further North than New Orleans, where 
Cauliflower does not succeed, the Broccoli may be substituted, being- 
more hardy. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS. 

Chou de Bruxelles, (Fr.) Eosen or Sprossen Kohl, (Ger.) 
Breton de Bruselas, (Sp.) 




Brussels Sprouts. 

A vegetable cultivated the same as the cabbage, but very little 
known here. The small heads which appear along the upper part of 
the stalk between the leaves, make a fine dish when well prepared. 



EiCHARD Frotschee's Almanac and Garden Manual 

CABBAGE. 

Chou Pomme, (Fr.) Kopfkohl, (Ger.) PtEPOLLO, (Sp.) 



Early York. 
Early Large York. 
Early Sugar Loaf. 
Early Large Oxheaet. 
Early Winningstadt. 
Jersey Wakefield. 
Early Flat Dutch. 
Large Flat Brunswick. 



Fotler's Improved Brunswick. 
Large Late Drumhead. 
Superior Late Flat Dutch. 
Red Dutch (for Pickling \ 
Green Globe Savoy. 
Early Dwarf Savoy. 
Drumhead Savoy. 
St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 



Culture, 



Cabbage requires a strong good soil, and should be heavily manured. 
To raise large Cabbage without good soil, and without working the 
plants well, is an impossibility. Cabbage is sown here almost in every 
month of the year, but the seed for a main crop should be sown from 
July to September ; some sow earlier, but July is time enough. For a 
succession, seed can be sown till November. Early varieties are sown 
during winter and early spring. Cabbage is a very important crop and 
one of the best paying for the market-gardener. It requires more 
work and attention than most people are willing to give, to raise cabbage 
plants during the months of July and August. I have found, by careful 
observation, that plants raised in August are the surest to head here. 
The most successful gardeners in raising cabbage plants, sow the seeds 
thinly in seed-beds, and water several times during the day ; in fact 
the seed-bed never is allowed to get dry from the sowing of the seed 
till large enough to transplant. There is no danger in doing 'this of 
scalding the plants as many would suppose, but just the reverse, the 
plants thrive well, and so treated will be less liable to be attacked by 
the cabbage-fly, as they are too often disturbed during the day. 

Early York. This is an early variety, but very little grown here, 
except for family use. As we have cabbage heading up almost the whole 
year, it has not the same value as in Northern climates, where the 
first cabbage in spring brings a good price. 

Larg-e Yorfe. About two to three weeks later than the above, 
forming hard heads, not grown for the market. Recommended for 
family use. 

Early Seig:ar I^oaf. Another pointed variety with spoon shaped 
leaves, sown in early spring for an early summer Cabbage. 

Early Ear^re Oxheart. An excellent variety, which is later 
than the Large York, and well adapted for sowingjn fall or early spring. 

Early lYiBieiing'Stadt. This is a very fine solid heading variety, 
pointed and of good size, of the same season as the Oxheart ; it is very 
good for family use. It does not suit the market, as no pointed cabbage 
can be sold to any advantage in the New Orleans market. 



For the Southern States. 



29 





Early York Cabbage. 



Large York Cabbage, 





Early Large Oxheart. 



Early Winningstadt. 




Supei-ior Large Late Flat Dutch. 



30 



ElCHAED FeOTSCHEE's ALMA^'AC AND GaEDE^T MaXUAL 





Green Globe Savov. 



Earlv Dwarf Savov. 




Drumhead Savor^ 



St. Denis or Chou BonneuU. 



Jersey "Wakefield, very popular in the Xorth, but little planted 
here ; it is of medium size and heads up well. 

Early Flat Dutch. An intermediate Yariety between the early 
pointed and late varieties ; it is not, on average, as heav}- as the Oxheart. 
or Winningstadt, but if raised for the market more salable on account 
of being flat. 

L.arg:e Flat Brunswick. This is a late German variety, intro- 
duced by me about fourteen years ago. It is an excellent variety and 
when well headed up, the shape of it is a true type of a Premium Flat 
I)utch Cabbage. It requires very rich ground, and should be sown early, 
as it is a little more susceptible of frost than the Superior Flat Dutch. 
It is well adapted for shipping, being ver^' hard and does not wilt so 
quick as others. At Frenier, along the Jackson Kail Eoad, this is the 
kind principally planted, and is preferred over all other varieties. The 
people living there plant nothing else except cabbage for the New 
Orleans market, and have tried nearly all highly recommended varie- 
ties, and this is their choice. 

Fotler's Improved Brunswick. This is similar to the Large 
Flat Brunswick, but somewhat later, and not so regular in shape. The 
seed of this kind being raised Xorth, renders the 'plants harder than 
the German Brunswick, 

Large Late Drumhead. Fine large variety, should be sown 
early in fall for winter, or during December and January for late spring 
use : it will stand more cold weather than the foregoing variety. 

Superior L.ate Flat Dutch. This is the most popular variety for 
winter cabbage, and cultivated by almost everj.* gardener who plants for 
the Xew Orleans market. My stock is of superior qualtity and I venture 



For the Southern States. 31 



to say, that seventy-five per cent, of all cabbage sold in the New Orleans 
market are of seeds which have been obtained from my store. During 
winter and spring specimens, which are brought as samples to my 
establishment, weighing from fifteen to twenty-five pounds, can be 
frequently seen. In regard to the time of planting see remarks under 
the head of Cabbage in the directions for planting for July. 

Red Dutcli. Mostly used for pickling or salads. Very little 
cultivated. 

Oreen Globe Savoy. Medium sized heads, not very hard, but 
all the leaves can be used. This and the following varieties are of fine 
flavor, and preferred by many over the other varieties. 

Early I>warf Savoy. Heads rather small, but solid, leaves 
very curled and succulent, of a dark green color. Very fine for family 
garden. 

Drumtiead Savoy. Leaves are wrinkled, but not quite so much 
as the two foregoing kinds. It grows to a good size with large roundish 
heads. 

St. Denis or Chora Bofiinenll. This is a very popular French 
variety for the market as well as family garden. It grows to a large 
size, but requires a good season, and good ground to make it head well. 
It should be sown during August and September for winter use, and in 
December and January for late spring use. Some market gardeners 
plant this variety in preference to any other, and some of the finest 
heads of cabbage offered in this market are of this variety. 

CAULIFLOWER. 

Choufleur, (Fr.) Blumenkohl, (Ger.) Coliflor, (,Sp.) 



Extra Early Paris. 
Half Early Paris. 
Large Asiatic. 
Early Erfurt. 



Le Normands (short stemmed.) 
Early Italian Giant. 
Late Italian Giant. 
Imperial (New.) 

This is one of the finest vegetables grown, and succeds well in the 
neighborhood of Nejv Orleans. Large quantities are raised on the sea 
coast in the neighborhood of Barataria Bay. The two Italian varieties 
are of excellent quality, growing to a large size and are considered 
hardier than the German and French varieties. I have had specimens 
brought to the store, raised from seed obtained from me, weighing six- 
teen pounds. The ground for planting Cauliflowers should be very 
rich. They thrive best in rich sandy soil, and require plenty of moist- 
ure during the formation of the head. The Italian varieties should be 
sown from April till July ; the latter month and June is the best time 
to sow the early Giant. During August, September and October the 
Le Normands, Half Early Paris, Asiatic and Erfurt can be sown. The 
Half Early Paris is very popular, but the other varieties are just as good, 
and the Asiatic is a little hardier than the rest. For Spring crop 
the Italian kinds do not answer, but the early French and German 
varieties can be sown at the end of December and during January in a 
bed protected from frost, and may be transplanted during February 
and as late as March, into the open ground ; if we have a favorable 
season and not too dry, they will be very fine, but if the heat sets in 



32 



KiCHAED FrotschePv's Almanac and Gaeden Manual 



soon, the flowers will not obtain the same size as those obtained from 
seeds sown in fall, and which head during- December and January. 

Extra Early Paris, the earliest variety, heads small, very tender. 

Half Early Paris. The most popular in the New Orleans mar- 
ket. Heads of good size, white and compact. 




Large Asiatic Cauliflower. 

Earg^e Asiatic is similiar to the above, but grows stronger, and 
is hardier. Quite a favorite variety with those who know it. 

Early Erfurt. This variety is of a more dwarfish growth than 
the two former. Heads white and of good size. Heads with certainty. 




Lie Normands short stemmed Cauliflower. 
Ee IVoriiiands, is a French variety and largely cultivated here. 
It stands more dry weather than the other varieties, and has large and 
pure white heads. Not so popular as the Half Early Paris in this 
market, but there is no good reason why it should not be, as it is an 
excellent variety in every respect. 



For the Southern States. 33 




Early Italian Giant Cauliflower. 

Early Italian OiaiiC. Yery large fine sort, not quite so late as 
the Late Italian, and almost as large. The heads are quite large, white 
and compact, and of delicious flavor. Eecommend it to all who have 
not tried it. When sown at the proper season it will head with certainty, 
and will not fail to give satisfaction. 

Liate Italian Oiant. This is the largest of all the Cauliflowers ; 
it is grown to a considerable extent in the neighborhood of New Orleans. 
It is very large and compact, should not be sown later than June, as it 
takes from seven to nine months before it heads. 

Imperial, (New.) A variety from France very similar to the Le 
Normand's perhaps a little earlier. 

CARROT. 

Carotte, (Fr.) Moehre or Gelbe Euebe, (Ger.) Zanahoria, (Sp.) 



Long Eed, without core. 
St. Valerie. 



Early Scarlet Horn. 
Half Long Scarlet French. 
Improved Long Orange. 

Eequires a sandy loam, well manured, and deeply spaded up. 
Should be sown in drills ten to twelve inches apart, so the plants can 
be worked after they are up. Gardeners here generally sow them 
broadcast, and often the roots are small from being crowded too much 
together. 

Early Scarlet Horn. A short stumprooted variety, of medium 
size, very early and of fine flavor. Not cultivated for the market. 

Half Eong: French Scarlet. This is the most popular variety 
and extensively grown for the market, as well as for family use. It is 
a little later than the Early Horn, but much larger, bright scarlet in 
color and of fine flavor. 

Half Eong: Euc. This is a new variety from France. It is as 
early as any previously mentioned, but stump-rooted and larger. It is 
very smooth and of a fine color, 

Inv.provecl Eong* Orang^e. This is an old variety, roots long 
and of a deep orange color. It is not much cultivated in this section 
and the flavor is not so fine as that of the two preceeding kinds. Valu- 
able for field culture. 



34 EicHAED Feotschee's ALjiA>-AC A^-D Gaeden MA^rAL 




Earlv Scarlet Hoiii CaiTot. HaK Long Lnc Carrot. 



Half Long French 
Scarlet Carrot. 



^^ A 








Carrot, Long Red, without core. 



Carrot, St. Yilerie. 



For the Southern States. 



35 



Liosig- UedL without core. A new variety from France, which is of 
cylindrical shape, very smooth, bright scarlet color and of fine flavor, 
has no heart or core. It i^ not quite so early as the Half Long, but 
more productive. Consider it a first-class variety for the table, and 
one that will come into general cultivation when better known. 

St. Valerie. A new variety from France bright red in color ; a 
little larger than the Half Long French, and stronger in leaves. 



Large White Solid. 
Incomparable Dwarf White. 
Sandringham's Dwarf White. 



CELERY. 

Celeri, (Fr.) Sellerie, (Ger.) Apio, (Sp.) 

I 



Turniprooted. 

Dwarf Large Eibbed. (New.) 

Cutting. 




Large White Solid Celery. 



Sow in May and June for 
early transplanting, and in 
August and September for a 
later crop. Sow thinly and 
shade during the hot months. 
Transplant when the plants 
are six inches high, . into 
trenches about four inches 
deep, nine wide and two and 
a half feet apart, made very 
rich try digging in rotten man- 
ure. Plants should be from 
six to eight inches apart. 
When planted out during the 
hot months, the trenches re- 
quire to be shaded, which is 
generally done by spreading 
cotton cloth over them ; lan- 
tanias will answer the same 
purpose. Celery requires plen- 
ty of moisture, and watering 
with soapsuds, or liquid man- 
ure will benefit the plants a 
great deal, W^hen tall enough 
it should be earthed up to 
blanch to mxake it fit for the 
table. 

Las'ge White Solid, is 
the variety mostly grown; it 
is white, solid and crisp. 

1 Incomparable I>warf 
l^VIiBte, or Boston Mar- 



ket, is short but earlier than the foregoing. It blanches very readily, 
sown by the market gardeners for late use, as it does not shoot into 
seed so quickly as the tall kinds. 



36 KicHARD Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Celeriac, or Tumiprooted Celeiy. 

Sandrin^bam Divarf Wlsite 

This is a new variety of excel- 
lent quality, somewhat taller 
than the Incomparable Dwarf. 
It has become very popular with 
the market gardeners. 

Celeriaic, or Turisiprooted 
Celery, is very popular in some 
parts of Europe, but hardly cul- 
tivated here. It should be sown 
in the fall of the year, and trans- 
planted six inches apart, in rows 
one foot apart. When the roots 
have obtained a good size, they 
are boiled, scraped off, sliced and 
dressed with vinegar, etc., as a 
salad. 

I>warfL.argeSSibl»ed. This 
kind has been brought here dur- 
ing the past year from France. It 
is short, but very thick-ribbed, 
solid and of fine flavor. 

Celery for Soup. This is 
sown in the spring of the year 
broad-cast, to be used for season- 
Dwarf Large Ribbed (new.) ing the same as Parsley. 

CHERVIL. 

Cerfeuil, (Fr.) Kerbelkraut, (Ger.) 
An aromatic plant used a good deal for seasoning, especially in 
oyster soup, and is often cut between Lettuce when served as a salad. 
In the North this vegetable is very little known, but in this section there 




Fob the Southern States. 



37 



is hardly a garden where it is not found. Sow broad-cast during fall 
for winter and spring, and in January and February for summer use. 

COLLARDS. 

A kind of Cabbage which does not head, but the leaves are used the 
same as other Cabbage. Not popular as in former years, and very 
little planted. 

CORN SALAD. 

Mache, Doucet, (Fr.) Acker Sal at, (Ger.) Valeriana, (Sp.) 

Broadleaved Corn Salad is the variety generally cultivated. It is 
used as a Salad during the winter and early spring months. Should 
be sown broad-cast during fall and winter, or in drills nine inches 
apart. 

CORN— Indian. 

Mais, (Fr.) Welschkorn, (Ger.) Maiz, (Sp.) 



Extra Early Dwarf Sugar. 
Adam's Extra Early. 
Early Sugar or Sweet. 
Stowel's Evergreen Sugar. 



Golden Dent Gourd Seed. 
Early Yellow Canada. 
Large White Flint. 
Blunt's Prolific, Field. (New.) 



Plant in hills about three feet apart, drop four to five seeds and 
thin out to two or three. "Where the ground is strong the Adam's Extra 
Early and Crosby's Sugar can be planted in hills two and a half feet 
apart, as these two varieties are more dwarfish than the other varieties. 
Plant for a succession from February till June. 



sssi 




Extra Early Sugar Corn. Early Sugar or New England Corn. Evergreen Sugar Corn. 



IL 



38 EiCHAP.D Feotschze's Alhaxac akd Gaede>^ Manual 



Extra Early or Crosby's Dwarf Sa§:ar. This is a very early 
variety and of excellent quality. Ears small but very tender. It is not 
so extensively planted as it deserves to be. 

Adam's Extra Early, the most popular variety vrith rnarket- 
gardeners for first planting. It has no fine table qualities, but as it 
grows to a good size, and is matured in about forty days from time of 
planting, it meets with ready sale in the market, and for these reasons 
gardeners prefer it. 

Early Sugar or :^>w Eiigrlaod. A long eight rowed variety, 
which succeeds the Extra Early kinds. Desirable variety. 

§towel's Evergreeo Sugar. This is the best of all Sugar 
Corn, it is not an early Corn, but the ears are of large size, and are well 
filled. It remains green longer than any other variety, and is quite } 
productive. The cultivation of this excellent cereal, as well as all 
other Sugar Corn is much neglected, yet why i)eople will plant common 
field-corn for table use, considering size instead of quality I cannot 
understand. 

Oolden Deut Gourd Seed. A field variety which is very 
productive at the Xorth. It makes very fine Corn South, but has to be 
planted here several years in succession before it attains perfection, 
as during the first year the ears are not well covered by the husk, as it is 
the case with all Northern varieties. When selected and planted here 
for a few years, it becomes acclimated and makes an excellent Corn 
with large fine ears, grain deep and cob of medium size. 

Early Teliow Canada* A long eight rowed variety. It is very 
early and is planted in both field and garden. 

Earge TTIiiSe Fliot. A very popular variety with gardeners 
and amateurs. It is planted here for table use principally, but like the 
Golden Dent makes an excellent variety for field culture after it has 
been planted here for two or three years. 

Blunt's Prolific Field Cora» iXew.) This is a ver\- excellent 
variety either for the field or for the table, it is very prolific, pro^Jucing 
from four to six ears of corn ; they are of mediimi size but well filled, 
and heavy. It is second early. 

CRESS. 

Ceesso>", iFr.t Kbesse, (Ger.) Beeeo, Sp.) 
Used for salad during winter and spring. Sow broad-cast or in 
diills six inches apart. 

Curled or Pepper Grass. Xot much used in this section. 
Broadiea ved. This variety is extensively cultivated for the mar- 
ket. It is sown from early fall to late spring. The leaves resemble 
Water Cress ; a variety which does not succeed well here. Is considered 
a verv wholesome dish. 

CUCUMBER. 

Co^xo:^^BKE, (Fr.;t Gueke, iGer.) Pepen-o, (Sp.) 

Improved Eaely White Spi>"e. Early Cluster. 

Early Frame. : Gherkin" or Burr (for pickling.) 

Long Gree>i Tuekey. 

Cucumbers need rich soil. Plant in hills from three to four feet 
apart, the hills should be made rich with well decomposed manure, 



For the Southern States. 



39 




and eight to ten seeds should be planted in each hill, and covered about 
one half inch deep ; when well up thin out to four plants in the hill. 
Hoe between the hills till the vines meet. When the spring is dry the 
plants have to be watered, else they do not keep in bearing long. They 
can be planted from March till July; A great many cucumbers are 
planted here in February, or even sooner, and are protected by small 
boxes with a pane of glass on top, these boxes are removed during the 
day, and put back in the evening. When days are cloudy and cold, the 
plants are kept covered. 

Improved Early'WIiite Spine. This 
is the most popular variety. It is of medi- 
um size, light green, 
covered with white 
Improved Early White Spine. spines, and turns 

white w^hen ripe. The best 'variety for shipping. 
Of late years it is used by most gardeners for forcing 
as well as out-door culture. It is very productive. 
Early Frame. Another early variety, but 
not so popular as the foregoing kind ; it is deep 
green in color, but turns yellow very quickly, there- 
fore gardeners do not plant it much. 

Liong: Crreeia Tttirkey. A long variety, at- 
taining' a length of from fifteen to eighteen inches 
when well grown. Very fine and productive. 

. Early Cluster. Early, short and prickly; 
and bears in clusters. Early Frame. 






Early Cluster. West India Gherkin. 

l»Vest India Olierkin. This is an oval variety, small in size. It 
is used for pickling when young and tender. When grown to its full 
size it can be stewed with meat. In fact this is the only use made of 
it about New Orleans. 



40 EiCHAKD Feotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





Large Purple Eggglant. 

EGGPLANT. 

Aubergine, (Fr.) Eierpflanze, (Ger.) Berengena, (Sp.) 
The seed should be sown in hot beds in the early part of January. 
When a couple of inches high they should be transplanted into another 
frame, so that the plants may become strong and robust. When warm 
enough, generally during March, the plants can be placed in the open 
ground, about two and a half feet apart. This vegetable is very popular 
in th§ South, and extensively cultivated. 

L<arg:e FeirpBe or New Orleans Market. This is the only kind 
grown here ; it is large, oval in shape and of a dark purple color, and 
very productive. Southern grown seed of this, as of a good many other 
tropical or sub-tropical vegetables, is preferable to Northern seed, as it 
will germinate more readily, and the plant will last longer during the 
hot season. 

ENDIVE. 
Chicoree, (Fr.) Endiven, (Ger.) Endibia, (Sp.) 
A salad plant which is very popular and much cultivated for the 
market, principally for summer use. It can be sown in drills a foot 
apart and when the plants are well ux) thinned out till about eight 
inches apart. Or it can be sown broad-cast thinly and transplanted 
the same as Lettuce. When the leaves are large enough, say about 
eight inches long, tie them up for blanching, to make them fit for the 
table. This can only be done in dry weather, otherwise the leaves are 
apt to rot. For summer use do not sow before the end of March, as, if 
sown sooner, the plants 
will run into seed very 
early. Sow for a succes- 
sion during the spring and 
summer months. For win- 
ter use sow in September 
and October. 

Greeo Curled, is the 
most desirable kind, as it 
bears more heat than the 
following sort, and is the 
favorite market variety. 




Green Curled Endive. 



For the Southern States. 



41 



Extra Fine Curled, does not grow quite so large as the fore- 
going, and is more apt to decay, when there is a wet summer. Better 
adapted for winter. 

BroadlesEved or Escarolle, makes a fine salad when well grown 
and blanched, especially for summer. 

KOHL-RABI, or Turniprooted Cabbage. 
Chou Navet, (Fr.) Kohl-Rabi, (Ger.) Col de Nabo, (Sp.) 

This vegetable is very popular with the European population of this 
City, and largely cultivated here. It is used for soups, or prepared in the 
same manner as Cauliflower. 
For late fall and winter use it 
should be sown from the end 
of July till the middle of Octo- 
ber; for spring use, during 
January and February. "When 
the young plants are one 
month old transplant them in 
rows one foot apart, and about 
the same distance in the rows. 
They also grow finely if 
sown broad-cast and thinned 
out when young, so that the 
I)lants are not too crowded; 
or they may be sown in drills 
and cultivated the same as 
Euta Bagas. 

EarBy ^"MteYieona, the 
finest variety of all, and the 
only kind I keep. It is early 
forms a smooth bulb, and 
has few small leaves. The 
so-called large White or Green is not desirable. 

LEEK. 

Poireau, (Fr.) Laugh, (Ger.) Puero, (Sp.) 
A si>ecies of Onion, highly esteemed for flavoring soups. Should be 
sown broad-cast and transplanted, when about six to eight inches high, 
into rows a foot apart and six inches apart in the rows. Should be 
planted at least four inches deep. They require to be well cultivated 
in order to insure large roots. Sow in October for winter and spring 
use, and in January and February for summer. 

liarjfe l<oiidon Flag*, is the most desirable kind, and that most 
generally grown. 

liarg-e Careufan. This is a new French variety which grows to 
a very large size. ' 

LETTUCE. 
Laitue, (Fr.) Lattice, (Ger.j Lechu.ga, (Sp.) 




Early White Vienaa Kohlrabi. 



Early Cabbage or White Butter- 
head. 

Improved Eoyal Cabbage. 

Brown Dutch Cabbage. 

Drumhead Cabbage. 

Lettuce is sown here during the whole year by the market-gardener. 

Of course it takes a good deal of labor to produce this vegetable during 



White Paris Coss. 

Large India Curled. 

Perpignan. 

Improved Large Passion. 



42 



EicHAED Feotschee's AL:irAXAC AND Gaeden Manual 



our hot summer months. For directions how to sprout the seed during 
that time, see "Work for June." The richer and better the ground the 
larger the head will be. No finer Lettuce are grown an%*where than 
in Xew Orleans during fall and spring. The seed should be sown 
broad-cast, and, when large enough, planted out in rows a foot apart, 
and from eight to ten inches apart in the rows. Some kinds grow larger 
than others, for instance Butterhead will not require as much space as 
Drumhead or Perpignan. 

Early Cabbage or ^Wbite Butter. 
An early yariety forming a solid head, but 
not quite so large as some others. It is the 
best kind for family use, to sow during fall 
and early spring, as it is xeTj early and of 
good flavor. Earlv Cabbage or White Butter. 





Wbite Paris Coss Lettuce. Perpignan Lettace. 

Improved Royal Cabba§re. This is the most popular variety 
in this State. Heads light green, of large size, and about two weeks 
later than the White Butter. It is very tender and crisp, can be sown 
later in the spring than the foregoing kind, and does not run into seed 
so quickly. 

Brown Dutch Cabbage. A very hardy kind, forms a solid 
head, not so popular as many other kinds. 

/f) Drumhead Cabbage. An 

excellent spring variety forming 
large heads, the outer leaves 
curled. 

IFhite Paris Coss. This 
is verj- popular with the Xew Or- 
leans market-gardeners, as it is 
the favorite with the French" 
population. It grows to perfec- 
tion and forms large fine heads, 
?^^^-'' particularly in the spring of the 

Drumhead Cabbage Lettuce. ye-ar. 




>^fe;i5^^' 



For the Southern States. 43 



L<arg:e India Cnrled. A variety highly esteemed in the North 
for summer planting, but very little cultivated here. 

Perpig^nan. A fine German variety which forms large light green 
heads, and which stands the heat better than the Royal. It is much 
cultivated for the market, as it thrives well when sown during the latter 
end of spring. 

Inijproved Large Passflon. This is a large Cabbage Lettuce 
from California ; it attains a large size, grows slowly, but heads very 
hard. It does better here during late autumn and winter, than in sum- 
mer, as it cannot stand the heat. 



MELON— Musk or Canteloupe. 

Melon, (Fr.) Melone, (Ger.) Melon, (Sp.) 



Netted Nutmeg. 
Netted Citron. 
Pine Apple. 



Early White Japan. 
Persian or Cass^ba. 
New Orleans Market. 



Melons require a rich sandy loam. If the ground is not rich enough 
a couple of shovels full of rotted manure should be mixed into each hill 
which ought to be from five to six feet apart, drop ten or twelve seeds, 
and when the plants have two or three rough leaves, thin out to three 
or four plants. Canteloupes are cultivated very extensively in the neigh- 
borhood of New Orleans, and the quality is very fine, far superior to 
those raised in the North. Some gardeners plant during February and 
cover with boxes, the same as described for Cucumbers. When Melons 
are ripening, too much rain will impair the flavor of the fruit. 

Netted Nutmeg* Meloo. Small oval melon, roughly netted, early 
and fine flavor. 

Netted Citroa Caziteloupe. This variety is larger than the fore- 
going kind, it is more rounded in shape, medium size, and roughly 
netted. 

Pine Apple Caeateloupe. A medium sized early variety, oval in 
shape, and of very fine flavor. 

£arly "Wbite Japan Canteloupe-. An early kind, of creamish 
white color, very sweet, and of medium size. 

Persian or Cassaba. A large variety of oval shape, delicate 
flavor. The rind of this kind is very thin, which is a disadvantage in 
handling, and prevents it Ifrom being planted for the market. Very 
fine for family use. 

New Orleans Market. A large species of the citron kind. It is 
extensively grown for this market ; large in size, very roughly netted, 
and of lucious flavor ; different altogether from the Northern Netted 
Citron which is earlier, but not so fine in flavor, and not half the size 
as the variety grown here. Small varieties of melons will improve in 
size if cultivated here for a number of years, and if care is taken that 
no Cucumbers, Squashes, Gourds or Pumpkin are cultivated in the 
vicinity. If the best and earliest specimens are selected for seed, in three 
or four years the fniit will be large and fine. 



44 



EiCHARD Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




T '^'K.o^l, 



Note, — The above cut represents the New Orleans >-Ielon ; it has been taken from a common spe- 
cimen growa by one of my castoiuers, who raises the seed of this- variety for me. 

MELON-Water. 

Melon d'Eau, (Fr.) Wassermelone, (Ger.) Sandia, (Sp.) 



Mountain Sweet. 
Mountain Sprout. 
Improved Gipsey. 



Ice-Cream (White seeded.) 
Orange Water. 
Rattle Snake. 



Water Melon will grow and produce in places where Canteloiipe will 
not do well. The soil for this plant should be light and sandy. Plant in 
hills about eight feet apart, eight to twelve seeds in a hill ; when the 
plants are well up thin out to three. The plants should be hoed often, 
and the ground between hills kept clean till the vines touch. 




Mountain Sweet Water Melon. 



For the Southern States. 



45 




Monntain Sprout Water Melon. 




Improved Gipsey Melon. 



MoorataiBi Sweet Water. This is a very popular variety, is of 
oblong shape, flesh bright scarlet and of good flavor. It is very pro- 
ductive. 

Mountain Sprout Water. This is similar in shape to the fore- 
going variety, but rather later. It is light green with irregular stripes 
of dark green. Flesh bright scarlet. 

Improved Oipsey. This is a lately introduced variety which 
has become the favorite of the market-gardeners. It is very large, 
oblong and of a dark green color, striped and mottled with light green. 
Flesh, scarlet, and of delicious flavor. This is without any exception 
the best market variety. 

Sce-€reaf¥B. (White seeded.) A medium sized variety of excel- 
lent quality. It is early and very productive. Being thin in the rind it 
is not so well adapted for the market as the other kinds, but notwith- 
standing this, it is grown exclusively by some for that purpose, on 
account of its earliness. 

Orang^e \Fater. Quite a distinct variety from the others. The 
rind can be peeled off the same as the skin of an orange. It is of 
medium size, fair quality. Yery little cultivated. 

Rattle Snake. An old Southern variety which has come into 
notice since a few years ; it is of large size, the green not quite so dark 
as the Gipsey, but the stripes larger ; fine market variety. The past 
season when other varieties failed, it stood the wet weather well, and 
sold more readily than others, not having been injured in looks. It 
stands transportation better than any other. 



46 



ElCHAED FeOTSCHEE's AlMAXAC AXD GAEDEiis MaXUAL 



MUSTARD. 

MouTAEDE, (Fr.) Senf, (Ger.) Mostaza, (Sp.) 
White oe Yellow Seeded. | Laegeleaved. 

This is grown to quite an extent in the Southern States, and is sown 
broad-cast during fall, winter and spring. It may be used the same 
as Spinach, or boiled with meat as greens. The White or Yellow seeded 
is very little cultivated and is used chiefly for medical purposes, or pick- 
ling. The Largeleaved or Curled has black seed, a distinct kind from 
the Northern or European variety. The seed is raised in Louisiana. It 
makes very large leaves, cultivated more and more every year. 

NASTURTIUM. 

Capucine, (Fr.) Indiaxische Keesse, (Ger.) Capuchina, (Sp.) 
Tall. j Bwaef. 

Not cultivated here, except for ornament. 

OKRA. 

Tall Geow3:n-g. ; Dwaef. 

This is a highly esteemed vegetable in the South, and no garden, 
whether small or large, is without it. It is used in making "Gumbo" 
a dish the Creoles of Louisiana know how to prepare better than any 
other people. It is also boiled in salt and water, and served -^ith 
vinegar as a salad, and is considered a very wholesome dish. Should 
not be planted before the ground is warm in spring, as the seeds are 
apt to rot. Sow in drills, which ought to be two to three feet apart, 
and when up thin out, and leave one or two plants exeTj twelve or 
fifteen inches. 




Tall Gro-wing Okra. 



For the Southern States. 47 



Tall Orowing:. This is the variety most cultivated here. The 
pods are long, round towards the end, and keep longer tender than the 
square podded kind. 

D^warf. Cultivated only as being earlier than the former kind. 
The pods are short, thick and ribbed, and not so nice in appearance as 
the Tall Growing variety. 

ONION. 
Onion, (Fp.) Zwiebel, (Ger.) Cebolla, (Sp.) 

Yellow Dutch or Strassburg. | White, or Silver Skin. 
Large Bed Wethersfield. I Creole. 

The Onion is one of the most important vegetables, and is grown 
to a large extent in Louisiana. Hundreds of barrels are shipped in 
spring from here to the "Western and Northern States. There is one 
peculiar feature about raising Onions here, and that is they can only 
be raised from Southern, or so-called Creole seed. No seed from 
North, "West, or any part of Europe will produce a merchantable Onion 
in the South. When the crop of Creole seed is a failure, and they are 
scarce, they will bring a good price, and have been sold as high as ten 
dollars a pound, when at the same time Northern seed could be had 
for one-fourth of that price. Northern raised seed can be sown to be 
used green, but as we have Shallots here which grow during the whole 
autumn and winter, and multiply very rapidly, the sowing of seed for 




Louisiana or Creole Onion. 



48 EicHAED Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



green onions is not profitable. Seed should be sown from the middle 
of September to the end of October; if sown sooner too many will 
throw np seed stalks. They are gen'erally sown broad-cast, and when 
the size of a. goose quill transplanted into rows one to two feet apart, 
and about five inches in the rowst Onions are dilTerent in regard to 
rotation, from other vegetables; they do best if raised on the same 
ground for a succession of years. The past season was a yery bad one 
in regard to raising Creole seeds ; almost everything has failed in the 
way of seeds raised here, and nothing as completely as the seed of 
Onions. I have been able to furnish but very little seed to my customers. 
It w^as sought after at ten to twelve dollars per pound, by those who 
cultivate Onions and know that the only reliable seed are the "Creole" 
for this climate. I have several parties raising seed for me, they all 
failed excepting one, who only produced a few pounds, where I expected 
a hundred. It is seldom that two such seasons follow in succession, 
and I hope that next season I shall be enabled to furnish seed to all 
my customers who want them. 

ITellow E>utcb, or Strassfeiarg-. A brownish yellow Onion, 
flat and of good size in the North, but does not bulb here. 

lL,arg:e Ked VTetliersfieid. This is the favorite kind in the 
East, but does not answer here, except to be used green. 

TFhite, or Silver glUio. A mild variety of the same shape as 
the Strassburg. This variety is more aiDt to make a small onion here 
than the two foregoing kinds are. 

LoiiisiaiAa, or Creole Oeioa* This is generally of a light 
red color, darker than the Strassburg, and lighter in color than the 
Wethersfleld. The seed I have been selling, of this kind, for a number 
of years, has been raised on Bayou Laf oitrche, and never has failed to 
make fine large Onions. 

SHALLOTS. 

ECHALLOTTE, (Fr.) SCHALLOTTEN, (Ger.) 

A small sizecl Onion which grows in clumps. It is generally grown 
in the South, and used in its g^een state for soups, stews, 'etc. There 
are two varieties, the Red and White ; the latter variety is the most 
popular. In the fall of the year the bulbs are divided and set out in 
rows a foot apart, and four to six inches in the rows. They grow and 
multiply very fast, and can be divided during winter and set out again. j 
Late in spring, when the tops become dry, they have to be taken up, i 
thoroughly dried, and stored in a dry airy place. 

PARSLEY. 

Peesil, (Fr.) Peteesillie, (Ger.) Perjil, (Sp.) 

Plain Lkwed. I Imeroved Garnishing. 

Double Curled. ' , 

Parsley can be sown during the fall from August to October, and 
during spring, from end of January to end of April. It is generally 
sovv'n broad-cast. 

Plain Lieaved. This is the kind raised for the New Orleans 
market. 



For the Southern States. 49 

Double Curled. The leaves of this variety are curled. It has 
the same flavor as the other kind, but is not so popular. 

luiproved Oarnistaiug:. This is the best kind to ornament a 
dish ; has the same flavor as the other kinds. 

PARSNIP. 

Panais, (Fr.) Pastinake, (Ger.) Pastinaca, (Sp.) 
HALLOW CROWN, OR SUGAR. 

Should be sown in deep mellow soil, deeply spaded, as the roots 
are long, in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart ; when the plants are 
about three inches high thin out to three inches apart in the row. Sow 
from September to November for winter, and January to March for 
spring and summer crops.. 

The Uallo'w Crown, or Sug-ar, is the kind generally culti- 
vated ; it possesses all the good qualities for which other varieties are 
recommended. 

PEAS. 

Pois, (Fr.) Erbse, (Ger.) Guisante, (Sp.) 

EARLIEST. 

Extra Early, 2| feet. 1 Early Tom Thumb, 1 foot. 

Early Washington, 3 feet. ' Laxton's Alpha, 3 feet. 



SECOND CROP. 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod, Ik feet. 
Champion of England, 5 " 
McLean's Advancer, 3 " 



McLean's Little Gem, IJ feet. 
Laxton's Prolific Long Pod, 3 ft. 
Eugenie, 3 feet. 



gereral crop. 

Dwarf Blue Imperial, 3 feet. 
Royal Dwarf Marrow, 3 feet. 
Black Eyed Marrowfat, 4 feet. 



Large White Marrowfat, 4 feet. 
Dwarf Sugar, 2J feet. 
Tall Sugar, 6 feet. 



Peas are a fine vegetable, and therefore are very generally culti- 
vated. It is best to plant in ground manured the previous year, else 
they will make more vines than peas. As a general thing the dwarf 
kinds require richer ground than the tall growing varieties. Marrow- 
fat Peas planted in rich ground will not bear well, but they produce 
finely in sandy light soil. 

The Extra Early, Tom Thumb, or Laxton's Alpha will not produce 
a large crop without being in rich ground. Peas have to be planted in 
drills two inches deep and from two to three feet apart, according to 
the height they may grow. Tom Thumb can be planted one foot apart 
whereas White Marrowfat or Champion of England require three feet. 
The Extra Early, Alpha and Tom Thumb can be planted during 
August and September for fall. During November and December we 
plant the Marrowfats ; January and February, as late as March, all kinds 
can be planted, but for the latter month only the earliest varieties 



Ik 



50 



ElCH-iED FeOTSCHER'S ALTilAXAC AND GARDEN MA>'rAL 



should be used, as the late varieties 
will get mildewed before they bring 
a crop. Peas will bear much better 
if some brush or rods are stuck in 
the drills to support them, except 
the Tery dwarf kinds. 

Extra Early. This is the ear- 
liest Pea cultivated; very popular 
with the small market-gardeners 
here, who have rich grounds. It is 
very productive and good flavored. 

Early W^a^iiing^tofi, Early 
May or Frame, which are all 
nearly the same thing; is about ten 
davs later than the Extra Early. It 
is very productive and keeps longer 
in bearing than the foregoing kind. 
Pods a little smaller. Yery popular 
about New Orleans. 

Tom Ttfinml). Yery dwarf 
and quite productive. Can be cul- 
tivated in rows a foot apart ; requires 
no branches or sticks. 

Eaxton's Alptaa. This is a 
variety of recent introduction ; it 
is the earliest wrinkled variety in 
cultivation ; of delicious flavor and 
very prolific. This variety deserves 
to be recommended to all who 
like a first class pea. It will come 
into general cultivation when bet- 
ter known. Extra Early Peas. 

JBisli05>'§ l>ivarf X<osi§: Pod. An early dwarf variety, very stout 
and branching, requires no sticks, but simply the earth drawn round 
the roots. It is very productive and of excellent quality, 

Ctiampiosi of Eng-laisd. A green wrinkled variety of very fine 
flavor ; not profitable for the market, but recommended for family use 

jTIcEean's Advancer. This is another gre^n wrinkled variety, 
about two weeks earlier than the foregoing kind. 

McLeans L.BttJe Gem, A dwarf wrinkled variety of recent 
introduction. It is early, very prolific and of excellent fiavor. Kequires 
no sticks. 

Eaxton's Prolific Eon^ Pod. A green marrow pea of good 
quality. Pods are long and well filled. It is second early, can be 
recommended for the use of market-gardeners, being very prolific. 

Eug^enie. A white wrinkled variety of fine flavor ; it is of the same 
season as the Advancer. Can not be too highly recommended for 
family use. 

DTi^ari* Sine Imperial. A very good bearer if planted earlj*; 
pods are large and well filled. 




For the Southern States. 51 



Koyafl Bwarf Mai'roiv. Similar to the large Marrowfat, but 
of dwarf habit. 

BSack Eyed Marrowfat. This kind is planted more for the 
market than any other. It is very productive and when young, quite 
tender. Grows about four feet high. 

Large Wliite Marroirfat. Similar to the last variety, except 
that it grows about tw^o feet taller and is less productive. 

Dwarf Sug:ar. A variety where the whole pod can be used,*after 
the string is drawn off from the back of the pod. Three feet high. 

Tall Siagar, has the same qualities as the foregoing kind, only 
grows taller and the pods are somewhat larger. Neither of these two 
varieties are very popular here. 

THE PEA BUG. 

All peas grown near Philadelphia have small holes in them, caused 
by the sting of the Pea Bug, while the pod is forming, when it deposits 
its egg in it. Later the insect perfects itself and comes out of the dry 
pea, leaving the hole. 

The germ of the pea is never destro^^ed, and they grow equally as 
well as those without holes. Market-gardeners in this neighborhood 
who 'have been planting the Extra Early Peas for years, will not take 
them without holes, and consider these a trade mark. 

FIELD OR COW PEAS. 

There are a great many varieties of Cow Peas, different in color and 
growth. They are planted mostly for fertilizing purposes ; that is sown 
broad-cast, and when a good stand and of sufficient height, they are 
plowed under. The Clay Pea is the most popular. There are several 
varieties, called crowders, which do not grow as tall as the others, but 
produce a great many pods which are used green the same as snapbeans, 
and if dried like dried beans. They make a very good dish. The crowders 
are of an oblong .shape, almost pointed at one end; they are on an 
average larger than the other Field Peas. Lady Peas are small, white 
with a black eye ; they are generally planted between corn, so that 
they can run upon it. Dry they are considered the best variety for 
cooking. 

PEPPER. 

PiMENT, (Fr.) Spanischer Pfeffee, (Ger.) Pimento, (Sp.) 

Bj:ll or Bull Nose. I Long Eed Cayenne. 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous. I Red Cherry. 

Peppers are tender and require to be raised in the hot-bed. Seed 
should be sown in January, and when large enough transplanted into 
the ground in rows from one and a half to two feet apart, and a foot 
to a foot and a half in the rows. There are more Peppers raised 
here than in other sections of the country; the hot varieties are 
used for seasoning and making pepper sauce, the mild variety is 



52 



EicH-^.D Frotschee^s Almanac and Gaeden MAxrAL 



highly esteemed for salad. Care 
should be taken not to grow different 
kinds close together as they mix very 
readily. 

S\i^eet Spanisti; or Monstrons. 
A very popular variety, and much 
cultivated, and used for salad. It is 
very mild, grows to a large siz^, taper- 
ing towards the end. 

Bell or Bull Nose. Is a large 
oblong variety which is not sweet or 
mild as thought by some. The seeds 
are very hot. Used for pickling. 

liOng: Red Cayenne. Is very 
hot and pungent. Cultivated here and 
used for pepper sauce, and seasoning 
purposes. 

Red Cherry. A small roundish 
variety, very hot and productive. 





Eed Cherry. 



Long Eed Cavenne. 



POTATOES. 



Eaely Eose. 
Jackson White. 
Beeese's Peerless. 
Breese's Peolific. 



PoMME DE Teeee, (Fr.) Kaetoffel, (Ger.) 
ErssETS. 



ExTEA Eaely Yeemont. 

Snowflake. 

Beauty of Hebeon. 



The past season has been the poorest for pototoes I have ever 
experienced ; most of those who planted here in lower Louisiana did not 
make more than the seed, higher up the crops have been better, but 
prices ruled low, and with very few exceptions, no money was made. 



For the Southern States. 53 



Potatoes thrive and produce best in a light, dry but rich soil. Well 
decomposed stable manure is the best, but if it cannot be had cotton 
seed meal, bone dust or any other fertilizer should be used, to make 
the ground rich enough. If the ground was planted the fall prev- 
ious with Cow Peas which were plowed under, it will be in good con- 
dition for potatoes. Good sized tubers should be selected for planting, 
which can be cut in pieces, not too small ; each piece ought to contain 
at least three eyes. Plant in drills from two to three feet apart, accord- 
ing to the space and how to be cultivated afterwards. For field culture 
two and a half to three feet apart ; for garden, two feet will answer. 
We plant potatoes here from end of December to end of March, but 
the surest time is about the first of February. If planted early they 
should be planted deeper than if planted late, and hilled up as they 
grow. If potatoes are planted shallow and not hilled soon, they will 
suffer more if caught by a late frost than if planted deep and hilled up 
well. Early potatoes have not the same value here as in the North, as 
the time of planting is so long, and very often the first planted get cut 
down by a frost, and a later planting which may just be peeping 
through the ground will escape and produce in advance of the first 
planted. A fair crop of potatoes can be raised here, if planted in 
August; if the Autumn is not too dry they will bring nice tubers by 
end of November. They should not be cut if planted at this time of 
the year, but planted whole. Potatoes from those raised in spring can 
be used for seed purposes. They should be put in a moist place, before 
planting, so they may sprout. The early varieties are preferable for 
this time of planting. 

I have been handling several thousand bairels of Potatoes every 
season for planting, and make seed potatoes a speciality. The Pota- 
toes I sell are Eastern grown, which as every one interested in Potato 
culture knows, are superior and preferable to Western grown. Nine 
years ago I introduced the Peerless Potato here. I then only re- 
ceived ten barrels, as the price was very high; but seeing the fine 
qualities of the same, and finding" it to suit our climate, I contracted 
the following year for a considerable lot, and urged my customers to 
plant them. No one has been disappointed in the result. It w^as 
during that same year that amongst a lot of Jackson Whites sent out 
here from New York, there were one hundred barrels of Peerless Po- 
tatoes. Merchants are not very particular in regard to name, and 
they were sold for Goodrich, Jackson Whites, or anything else they 
resembled. They are well known now, and the kind mostly planted. 
I brought out six years ago the Extra Early Vermont, Brownell's 
Beauty, and Compton's Surprise. The latter variety I have discarded ; 
it is not salable on account of its purplish color. Four years ago the 
Snowflake was the sensation. I believe this latter will become popular 
in the course of time. 

After another year's trial I have discarded the Brownell's Beauty. 
It is of very good quality, productive, but not salable in the market on 
acccount of its color, which resembles the Eusset, one of the most 
common Potatoes received here from the West. I have had six 
other new varieties under trial but did not find anything to justify the 
high price asked for them, for our section. The Alpha is a fine white 



lb 



54 



EicHAED Feotschee's Almanac and Gaeden Manual 



early kind, but not productive. Euby and other Yarieties are pinkish 
which always is an objection for this market. These fancy prices for 
new Potatoes do not pa,3* here, as we can keep none over for seed, and 
any person raising for the market would not realize a cent more for a 
new fancy variety per barrel than for a barrel of good Peerless or Early 
Eose. Earliness is no consideration as we plant from December to end 
of March ; somebody may plant Early Eose in December and another 
in February and those planted in February come to the market first, 
depends entirely upon the season ; if late frosts set in, early planted 
potatoes will be cut down and those just coming out of the ground will 
not be hurt. The Jackson White has given but little satisfaction this 
and last 3'ear, except in cases where planted very early. The yield 
was good but the quality poor and very knotty, perhaps this was the 
fault of the season. 

Early Mose. This is without any doubt the best potato for the 
table. It is oval, very shallow-eyed, pink skinned, very dry a.nd mealj' 
when boiled. It has not become so popular as it deserves as a market 
variety, as pink or red potatoes do not sell so well here as the white 
kinds. This variety should not be planted too soon, from the fact that 
they make small stalks, and if cut down by frost, they suffer more than 
other varieties. No better potato for family use. Every one who 
plants ought to plant some of this variety, but they want rich, light 
soil to grow to perfection. 

Jael£SOE2 'Wlaite. This is a vei^ popular kind here in New Or- 
leans and before the Peerless was introduced it was the leading Potato. 
It is not quite so early as the Peerless. It is white, has a gi'eat many 
eyes, and is of veiw good quality. When grown here it gets smoother 
than when produced in the East. It keeps well, and during wet seasons 
rots less than any other variety. Almost out of cultivation. 

Breese's Feei'iess. Only six years since this variety was intro- 
duced, yet at present it is the leading variety for market as well as for 
family use. Skin dull white sometimes slightly russetted ; eyes few 




;-l 



Knowflake. 



For the Southern States. 



55 



and shallow, round, occasionally oblong; grows to a large -size, very 
productive and earlier than the Jackson White. As white potatoes are 
more salable than pinkish kinds, and as this variety is handsome in 
appearance, and of good quality, it has become the general favorite in 
this section. 

Brccse's Prolific. This is another new sort ; the vines are short ; 
tubers from medium to large, very regular and very smooth. Skin 
dull white, slightly russetted ; eyes shallow and pinkish. Flesh white, 
very mealy and of fine quality; not quite so productive here as the 
foregoing kind. 

Russets. This kind is still planted by some. It is round, redish 
and slightly russetted. Eyes deep and many. Very i^roductive, but 
not so fine in quality as some others. If the season is dry it will do 
well, but in a, wet season, this variety will rot quicker than any other. 

£xtra Early Ver- 
mont. Very similar to 
the Early Bose, but of 
a stronger growth, a 
little earlier, and the 
tubers are more uniform 
and larger. It is an ex- 
cellent table variety. 

SnowAaike. This is 
a very early variety; 
tubers good medium 
size, elongated, very 
uniform and quite pro- 
ductive. Eyes flat on the 
body of the tuber, but 
compressed on the seed 
end. Skin white, flesh 
very line grained, and 
when boiled snow-white. 
For an early market 
variety it can not be 
surpassed. 

Beauty ©f Hebron. 
I have tried this variety 
very thoroughly and 
have found it all that it 
has been represented. 
It is earlier than the 
Early Eose, which re- 
sembles it very much, 
being a little lighter and 
more russetted in color. 
It is very productive and 
of excellent table quali- 
ty, more mealy than the 
Early Rose. I have a Extra Early Vermont, 

large lot grown East, and the crop is promising, so I expect to be able 
to offer the genuine article at a low price. 




56 



EiCHAED Frotschee's Almanac and Garden Manual 



THE SWEET POTATO. 

Convolvulus batatas. 

The Sweet Potato is next to corn the most important food crop in 
the South. They are a wholesome and nutritious diet, good for man 
and beast. Though cultivated to a limited extent on the sandy lands 
of New Jersey and some of the middle States, it thrives best on the 
light rich sands of the South which bring their red and golden fruits to 
greatest perfection under the benign rays of a southern sun. It is a 
plant of a warm climate, a child of the sun, much more nutritious than 
the Irish Potato on account of the great amount of saccharine matter 
it contains, and no southern table should be found without it from the 
first day of August till the last day of May. Some plant early in spring 
the potato itself in the prepared ridges, and cut the vine from the 
potato when large enough, and plant them out ; others start the pota- 
toes in a bed prepared expressly for that purpose, and slip off the 
sprouts as they come up, and set these out. The latter method will 
produce the earliest potatoes, others who set out the vines, say that they 
make the largest tubers. In preparing the land the soil should be 
thoroughly pulverized, the ridges laid off about five feet apart, well 
drawn up and rather flat on top. If everything is ready and time for 
planting has arrived do not wait for a rain, make a paste of clay and 
cow manure, in this dip the roots of the slips and press the earth firmly 
around them. Old slips are more tenacious of life than young ones, and 
will under these circumstances answer best. Watering afterwards, if 
dry weather continues, of course, will be beneficial. Otherwise plant 
your vines or slips just before or after a rain. Two feet apart in the 
row is considered a good distance. The ridges should never be dis- 
turbed by a plow from the time they are made until the potatoes are 
ready to be dug. 

Scrape off the grass and young weeds with the hoe and pull up the 
large ones by hand. Crab grass is peculiarly inimical to the sweet 
potato and should be kept carefully out of the patch. The vines should 
never be allowed to take root between the rows. Sweet potatoes should 
be dug before a heavy frost occurs, a very light one will do no harm. 
The earth should be dry enough to keep it from sticking to the potatoes. 
The old fashioned i)otato bank is the best arrangement for keeping 
them, the main points being a dry place and ventilation. Varieties 
generally cultivated in the South. 

TTBie l^am. Taking into consideration quality and productiveness 
the Yam stands at the head of the list. Frequently when baked, the 
saccharine matter in the shape of candy will be seen hanging to them 
in strings. Skin and flesh yellow, and very sweet. "Without a doubt 
the best potato for family use. 

The BerDietda. This variety is perhaps a little more productive 
and earlier than the preceeding, but far behind it in quality. Skin red, 
flesh white and mealy, and on that account not very popular as a table 
potato. 

Sbaug^foai or Califoruia ITaEii. This is the earliest variety 
we have, frequently, under favorable circumstances, giving good sized 
tubers two months after planting the vine. Very productive, having 
given 300 bushels per acre when planted early and on rich land. Is al- 



For the Southern States. 



57 



most the only kind cultivated for the New Orleans, market. Skin dull 
white or yellow, flesh white, dry and mealy, in large specimens fre- 
quently stringy. 

There are some other varieties of Sweet Potatoes highly prized in 
the West, but are not appreciated here. The Eed and Yellow Nanse- 
mond are of fine quality and productive, but will not sell so well as the 
California Yam when taken to market. For home consumption they 
are fine, and deseive to be cultivated. 

PUMPKIN. 

PoTiRON, (Fr.) KuERBiss, (Gcr.) Calabaza, (Sp.) 

Kentucky Field. I Cashaw Crook Neck. 

Large Cheese. I , 

Are generally grown in the field, with the exception of the Cashaw, 
which is planted in the garden ; but great care must be taken not to 
have them close to Squashes or Melons, as they will mix and spoil the 
quality of the same. Plant in hills from eight to twelve feet apart. 

Kentucky Field. Large round, soft shell, salmon color, very 
productive ; best for stock. 

L.arg:e CEieese. This is of a bright orange, sometimes salmon 
color, fine grained and used for the table or for stock feeding. 

Casiiaw (Ci'oolt Wecli). This is very extensively cultivated in 
tjhe South for table use. There are two kinds, one all yellow and the 
other green striped with light yellow color. The latter is the preferable 
kind, the flesh is fine grained, yellow and very sweet. It keeps well. 
This variety takes the place here of the Winter Squashes, which are 
very little cultivated. 

RADISH. 
Eadies, Eave, (Fr.) Eadies, Eettig, (Ger.) Eabano, (Sp.) 

Early Long Scarlet. 
Early Scarlet Turnip. 
Yellow Summer Turnip. 
Early Scarlet Olive Shaped. " 



White Summer Turnip. 
Scarlet Half Long French. 
Black Spanish (Winter.) 
Chinese Eose (Winter.) 



This is a very popular vegetable, and grown to a large extent. The 
ground for radishes should be rich and mellow. The early small 
varieties can be sown broad-cast among other crops, such as beets, peas, 
spinach, or where lettuce has been transplanted. Early varieties are 
sown in this section the whole year, but during summer they require 
frequent watering to make them grow quickly. The Yellow and White 
Summer Turnip are best for planting during the summer months. The 
Half Long Scarlet French is the only red kind raised for the New 
Orleans market, and all the other cities in the United States taken 
together do not use as many of that one variety as New Orleans does. 
I have sold nearly two thousand pounds of the seed per annum for the 
last twelve years. 

Early liOug: Scarlet. This is a very desirable variety, it is of 
a bright? scarlet color, short top," and very brittle. 

Early Scarlet Turaip. A small round variety, the favorite 
kind for family use. It is very early, crisp and mild wlien young. 



58 



ElCHARD FeOTSCHEE's AlMAXAC AND GaEDEX ITaNTAL 



r-- tnr^ 




Yellow Summer Turnip, 




Earlv Lon^ Scarlet. 




Scarlet Half Lon? Frencli. 







Early Scarlet Turnip. 



Yellow SiiJiiiner Turnip. This stands the heat better than 
the forej^oing kinds. It is of an oblong shape, yellow, russetted on the 
top. It should be sown Yery thinly. Best adapted for summer and fall 
sowing. 

Early Scarlet Olive Shaped. This is similar to the Half 
Long French, but shorter, and not quite so bright in color. It is early 
and of good quality. Top short. 



For the Southern States. 



59 



\¥Mte Summer Turnip. This is a summer and fall variety. 
Oblong in shape, sl^in white, stands the heat well, but is not much 
used. 

Scarlet Half I^ong: FrencSi. This is the most popular Radish 
for the market. It is of a bright scarlet color, and when well grown 
from two to three inches long, very brittle and tender. 

£»lael£ SpanfiisSi. (Winter.) This is sown during fall and early 
winter. It is oval in shape, very solid and stands considerable cold 
weather without being hurt. It can be sown broad-cast between 
Turnips, or planted in rows a foot apart, and thinned out from three to 
four inches in the rows. • 

Cliinese ISose. (Winter.) This is of a half long shape, bright 
rose color. It is as hardy as the last described kind, but not so popular. 

ROQUETTE. 

Eoquette, (Fr.) 
Sown from September to March. It is used as a salad, resembling 
the Cress in taste. 

SALSIFY, or Oyster Plant. 

Salsifis, (Fr.) Haferwurzel, (Ger.) Ostra 

Vegetal, (Sp.) 
A vegetable which ought to be more culti- 
vated than it is. It is prepared in different 
ways. It partakes of the flavor of oysters. 
It should be sown in the fall of the year ; not 
later than November. The ground ought to 
be manured the spring previous, and deeply 
spaded up, and well pulverized. Sow in drills 
about ten inches apart, and thin out to three 
to four inches in the rows. 

SPINACH. 

Epinard, (Fr.) Spinat, (Ger.) Espinago, (Sp.) 

Extra Large Leaved Savoy. 

Broad Leaved Flanders. 
A great deal of this is raised for the New 
Orleans market. It is very popular. Sown 
from September to end of March. If the fall 
is dry and hot, it is useless to sow it, as the 
seeds require moisture and cool nights to 
make them come up. The richer the ground, 
the larger the leaves. 

Extra BL.ars:e L-eaved Savoy. The 
leaves of this variety are large, thick and a 
little curled. It does not grow so strong as 
the following kind. ' Salsify or Oyster Plant. 

Broad I^eaved Flanders. This is the standard variety both 
for market and family use. Leaves large, broad and very succulent. 

SORREL. 

Oseille, (Fr.) Sauerampfer, (Ger.) Aoedera, (Sp.) 
Planted in drills a foot apart, during the fall of the year; and 
thinned out to three to four inches in the drills. Sorrel is used for 




60 



ElCHAED FrOTSCHER's AlMANAC A^'D G-AEDEN MA^-UAL 



various purposes in the kitchen. It is used tlie same as Spinach ; also, 
in soups and as a salad. 

SQUASH, 

CouEGE, (Fr.) KuEEBiss, (Ger.) Calabaza Tontaneea, (Sp.) 

Early Bush, or Patty Pax. I London VEGETiSLE Marrow. 

Long Green, or Summer Ceook- The Hubbard. 

Neck, ' Boston Marrow. 

Sow during March in hills from three to four feet apart, six to eight 
seeds. When well up thin them out to Aree of the strongest plants. 
For a succession they can be planted as late as June. Some who pro- 
tect by boxes plant as soon as the first of Februarj', but it is best to 
wait till the ground gets warm. "When it is time to plant Corn, it is 
time to plant Squash. 




Early Bush or Patty Pan. Long Green or Summer Crook-Neck. 



The Hubbard. 



Early Bush, or Pattj^ Fsiii. Is the earliest and the only 
popular kind here. All other varieties are very little cultivated, as the 
Cashaw Pumpkin, the striped variety takes their place. It is of dwarf- 
ish habit, grows bushy and does not take much room. 

LiOn^ Green, or SiioisHer €rooM.-Neck. This is a very strong 
grower, and continues in bearing longer than the first named kind. It 
is of good quality, but not so poinilar. 

L.ondo5i Veg-etable Marrow*'. A European variety, very little 
cultivated here. It grows to a good size and is very dry. Color whitish 
with a yellow tinge.' 

The Hiil>bard. This is a Winter Squash, very highly esteemed 
in the East, but hard!}- cultivated here. 

Boston Marrow. Cultivated to a large extent Xorth and East 
for Winter use, where it is used for custards, etc. It keeps' for a long 
time and is of excellent quality, but not esteemed here, as most people 
consider the Southern grown Cashaw Pumpkin superior to any Winter 
Squash. 



Von THE Southern States. 



61 



TOMATO. 

TOMATE, (Fr.) LlEBESAPFEL, (Ger.) TOMATE, (Sp.) 



Trophy^ (selected.) 
Large Yellow. 

Acme, (new.) 



Extra Early Dwarf Red. 
Early Large Smooth Red. 
FeeJee Island. 

TiLDEN. 

Seed should be sown in January in hot beds, or in boxes which 
must be placed in a sheltered spot, or near windows. In March they 
can be sown in the open ground. Tomatoes are generally sown too 
thick, and become too crowded when two to three inches high, which 
makes the plants too thin'aitd spindly. If they are transplanted when 
two or three inches high, about three inches apart each way, they will 
become short and sturdy, and will not suffer when planted out into the 
open ground. Plant them from three to four feet apart. Some varie- 
ties can be planted closer ; for instance for the Extra Early, which is 




Selected Trophy. 



62 



EicHAED Frotschee's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Extra Earlv Dwarf, 



of very dwarfish habit, two 
and a half feet apart is 
enough. They should be 
supported by stakes, when 
allowed to grow up wild; 
the fruit which touches the 
ground will rot. For a late 
or fall crop the seed should 
be sown towards the latter 
end of May and during 
June. 

,^ ^^ Extra Early Dwarf. 

/^<^' This is the earliest in 
''^ cultivation. It is dwarf- 
ish in habit; fruit larger 
than the following kind, 




Tlie New Acme. 



For the Southern States. 



.63 



and more flat, bright scarlet in color and very productive. For. an 
early market variety it can not be surpassed. 

Early Liarge Smootb Red. One of the earliest; medium size ; 
skin light scarlet, smooth and productive. 

Feejee Island. A large variety, very solid, and of pinkish color. 
Good for a late variety. 

Tilde n«> This is the standard variety for family garden as well as 
market. It is of a good shape, brilliant scarlet, and from above me- 
dium to large in size. It keeps well and is planted for the general crop. 

Selected Trophy. A very large, smooth Tomato, more solid 
and heavy than any other kind. It is not quite as early as. the Tilden. 
Has become a favorite variety. 

IL.arg:e Yellow. This is similar in shape to the Large Red, but 
more solid. Not very popular. 

Acme. This is a new variety and the prettiest and most solid 
Tomato ever introduced. It is of medium size, round and very smooth, 
a strong grower and a good and long bearer. They are the perfection 
of Tomatoes for family use, but will not answer for shipping purposes ; 
the skin is too tender and cracks when fully ripe. 

TURNIP. 

Navet, (Fr.) RuEBE, (Ger.) Nabo Comun, (Sp.) 



Early Eed Or Purple Top, 

(strap-leaved.) 
Early White Flat Dutch, 

(strap-leaved.) 
Large White Globe. 
PoMERiAN Globe. 
White Spring-. 



Yellow Aberdeen. 
Golden Ball. 
Purple Top Ruta Baga. 
Improved Ruta Baga. 
Extra Early White French, or 
White Egg Turnip, (new.) 





Early Eed or Purple Top, (Strap-Leaved.) 



Improved Purple Top Kuta Baga. 



64 



EiCHAED Feotscher's Almaxac axd Gaedex ITaxtal 



Turnips do best in ne^ ground. When ihe soil has been worked 
long, it should receive a top dressing of land plaster or ashes. If 
stable manure is used the ground should be manured the spring 
previous to sowing, so it ma^' be well incorporated with the soil. When 
fresh manure is used, the turnips are apt to become specked. Sow 
from end of .July till October for fall and winter, and in Januarj-, Feb- 
ruary and March for spring and summer use, The3' are generally 
sown broad-cast, but the Euta Baga should be sown in drills, or rather 
ridges ; and should not be sown later than end of August, The Golden 
Ball and Jiberdeen not later than end of September. The white Flat 
Dutch, Early Spring and Pomerian Globe are best for spring, but also 
good for autumn. 




Earlr yThlte Rat Dutch. (Strap-Leayecl.) 



Early Red, or Purple Top. (Steap-Leaved.) This is one of 
the most popular kinds; it is flat, with a small tap-root, and a bright 
purple top. The leaves are narrow and grow erett from the bulb. The 
flesh is flne grained and rich. 

EarSy T^'isite FEat I>EitcIi. (Stbap-Leaved.) This is similar to 
the above in shape, but considered about a vs^eek earlier; it is \evy 
popular. 

L.ar§:e "^bite Glohe* A very large variety 
stock. It can be used for the table when young, 
sweet. Tops very large. 

Poiiieriaa GloI)e. This is 
smoother and handsomer in shape 



mostly grown for 
Flesh coarse, but 



selected from the above; it is 
Good to plant early in spring. 



is a very salable turnip in the 



to the White Flat Dutch 



When pulled before it is too large, it 
market. 

Wliite §prinif. This is similar 
quite so "large, but rounder in shape. The tops are larger, 
a good quality, and best adapted for spring planting. 

Teilow Aberdeen. This is a variety very little cultivated here 
It is shaped like the Euta Baga, color yellow with purple top. Good 



It is eariy^ 



For the Southeen States. 



65 



for the table or feed- 
ing stock. 

Robertson's 
Golden Ball. Is 

the best of the yellow 
Turnips for table use. 
It is very smooth, 
oval in shape, and of 
a beautiful orange 
color. Leaves are 
small. Should be 
sown in the fall of 
the year, and always 
in drills, so that the 
plants can be thinned 
out and worked. 
This kind ought to 
be more cultivated, 

P urple Top 
Ruta Bag:a or 
S\i^ede. This is 
grown for feeding 
stock and also for 
table use. It is ob- 
long in shape, yellow 




Extra Early White French. 



Pomerian Globe, 
flesh, very solid. Should always 
be sown in rows or ridges. 

Improved Purple Top 
Ruta JSa^^a. Similar to the 
above ; bulb smoother, with but 
few fibrous roots. 

Extra Early ^W Si i t e 
Frencii, or l»Vtaite Egg 
Turnip. This is a lately intro- 
duced variety; is said to be very 
early, tender and crisp. The 
shape of it is oblong, resembling 
an egg. Having tried it, I found 
it as represented, quickly Row- 
ing, tender and sweet. It never 
will become a favorite market 
variety, as only flat kinds sell 
well in this market. It has to be 
pulled up soon, as it becomes 
pithy, shortly after attaining ma- 
turity. 



66 EicHAED Feotschee's Almaxac axd Gaeden 3lA^*rAL 



SWEET AND MEDICINAL HERBS. 

Some of these possess culinary as well as medicinal properties. 
Should be found in every garden." Ground where they are to be sown 
should" be well prepared and pulverized. Some of them have very fine 
seed, and it is only necessary after the seed is sown, to press the ground 
with the back of the spade ; if covered too deep they cannot come up. 
Early spring is the best time to sow them ; some, such as Sage, Eose- 
mary. Lavender and Basil, are best sown in a frame and afterwards 
transplanted into the garden. 

Anise, Pimpinelle An'isnm. 

Balm, Melisse officinalis. 

Basil, large and small leaved, Ocymum haslUcum. 

Bene, Sesamum orientale. 

Borage, Borago officinulis. 

Caraway, Carum cai^jii. 

Dill, Anetham graveoleits. 

Fennel, sweet, Anethuni foeniculura. 

Lavender, Lavendula vera. 

Majoram, sweet, Origanum mayorani. 

Pot Marigold, Calenchda offic'inaUs. 

Eosemary, Rosemary officinalis 

Eae, Buta graveolens. 

Sage, Salvia officinalis. 

Summer Savory, Satureja liortensis. 

Thyme, Thymas vulgaris. 

Wormwood, Artemisia absinthium. 



GRASS AND FIELD SEEDS. 

I have often been .asked what kind of Grass seed is the best for this 
latitude, but so far I have never been able to answer these questions 
satisfactorily. For hay I do not think there is anything better than 
the Millet. For permanent grass I have almost come to the conclusion 
that none of the grasses used for this purpose Xorth and West will 
answer. Eye, Eed Oats and Eescue Giass will make winter pasturage 
in this latitude. Different kinds of Clover answer ver\' well during 
spring, but during the hot summer months I have never found an}~thing 
to stand and produce except the Bermuda and Crabgrass which are 
indegenious to the South. The former does not seed and has to be 
propagated by roots. In my opinion it is better suited for pasturage than 
for hay, as it is rather short and hard when cured. I have had so 
many applications for Guinea Grass that I have been induced to import 
soD^ from Jamaica, where it is used altogether for pasturage. It seems 
to grow rank, but so far I am not enabled to pass an opinion upon it; 
it looks rather coarse for hay. Having tried the Guinea Grass I have 
come to the conclusion that it will not answer for here, from the fact 
that it will freeze out every year. It will produce a large quantity of 
hay or green fodder, but has to be resown every spring. The seeds 
that are raised here are light, and do not germinate freely. To import 
seed everv vear is rather troublesome. The Johnson Grass advertised 



J 



For the Southern States. 67 



by some as Guinea Grass is not the Guinea Grass; it is much coarser 
and can hardly be destroyed after having taken hold of a piece of 
ground. Some are enthusiastic about Alfaifa or Lucerne, others, whose 
opinion ought also to be respected, say it will not do here. There exists 
a great difference of opinion in regard to which Grass seed is most 
suitable for the South. 

Red CIo vei'r Should be sown either during fall or early in spring. 
Six to eight pounds to an acre. 

White Dutcli Clover. A grass sown for pasturage at the rate 
of four to six pounds to the acre. Should be sown in early spring. 

Alsike CSover. This is also called Hybrid Clover ; it is a native 
of Sweden, a cold climate, and does not succeed so well here as the 
other kinds, because of burning out in summer. 

Alfalfa or CliiSi Clover, or French Lucerne. This variety 
does well here, but the ground has to be well prepared, and deeply 
plowed. It will not do in low wet ground. Should be sown in January 
or February ; eight to ten pounds per acre. 

Kentucky Blue Grass, (Extra Cleaned.) Should be sown in 
dry soil. Two bushels per acre. 

Orchard Orass. This is one of the best grasses for pasturing. 
It grows quickly, much more so than the Blue Grass. Can be sown 
either in fall or spring, sow one to one and a half bushel per acre. 

Rescue Grass. A forage plant from Australia, it grows during 
winter. Sow the seed in the fall of the year, but not before the weather 
gets cool, as it will not sprout so long as the ground is warm. 

Hung'arian Grass. This is a valuable annual forage plant and 
good to make hay. Sow three pecks to the acre. It should be cut 
when in bloom. 

German Millet. Of all the Millets this is the beet. It makes 
good hay, and produces lieavily. Three pecks sown to the acre broad- 
cast. secures a- good stand. Can be sown from April till June, but the 
former month is the best time, should be cut the same as the foregoing 
kind. 

Rye. Is sown during the fall months as late as December for 
forage, and for pasturage during winter and spring. 

Barley, Fall. Can be sown fall and winter, but requires strong- 
good soil. Used here for forage during its green state. 

Red or Rust Proof Oats. It is only a few years since these 
oats have come into general cultivation. They are very valuable and 
will save a great deal of corn on a farm. The seed of this variety has 
a redish cast, and a peculiar long beard, and is very heavy. It is the 
only kind which will not rust in the Southern climate. They can be 
sown as early as October, but should be pastured down as soon asj;hey 
commence to joint, till February. When the ground is low, or the 
season wet this can not well be done without destroying the whole crop. 
During January and February is the proper time ; if no pasturing can 
be done. One to one and a half bushel per acre is sufficient. These 
oats have a tendency to stool, and therefore do not require as much per 
acre as common oats. Those who have not already tried this variety, 
should do so. 



EicH-^.D FEaxscHEE's Almaxac A^■T) Gaedex ^NIaxtal 



Sorghnni. Is planted for feeding stock during the spring and 
early summer. For this purpose it should be sown as early in spring 
as possible in drills about two to three feet apart ; three to four quarts 
per acre. It n:akes excellent green fodder. 

Broo^i Corn, Can be planted the same as corn, but the hills 
closer together in the row. Six quarts will plant an acre. 

East ludia ?Iillet. My Almanac of 1879 gave a full description 
of this forage, plant, written by E. M. Hudson, Esq. It has proven to 
be all that has been claimed for it. Price per tb 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 



The directions given here are for the Southern part of Louisiana. 
If applied to localities Xorth of here, the time of planting will not be 
quite as early in spring, and earlier in fall. For instance : the direc- 
tions for January will answer for February in the Northern part of 
this State and Southern part of Mississippi or Arkansas. In autumn, 
directions for September can be followed in August. In those sections, 
very little can be planted in November and December. 



JANUARY. 

Sow Spinach, Must-ard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnips and Leeks, the 
i early varieties of Eadish, and for the last crop, the Black Spanish. 
i Sow Spring and Purple Top Turnip. Euta Baga also may be sown, 

for table use later in spring. 

Sow Lettuce, Endive, Cabbage, Broccoli, Kohlrabi and Early Cauli- 
flower; the latter best sown in a frame to be transplanted next month. 

Cress, Chervil, Parsley and Celery for cutting, should be sown this 
month. Sow Eoquette and Sorrel. 

If the hot bed has not been prepared already, make it at once to 
sow Egg Plant, Pepper and Tomatoes. 

All kinds of Herb seed may be sown during this month. Plant 
Peas for a general crop, towards the end of the month the Extra Early 
varieties can be planted. 

Plant Potatoes, but the Early jEose should not be planted before 
the latter end of this month. 

Divide and transplant Shallots. Transplant Cabbage plants sown 
in November. Onions, if not already set out, should be hurried with 
now, so they may have time to bulb. Those who desire to raise Onion 
sets, should sow the seed this month, as they may be used for setting 



FoK THE Southern? States. 69 



out early in the fall, and can be sold sooner than those raised from 
seed. Creole seed is the only kind which can be used to raise sets. 
from. Northern seed will not make sets. This I know from exper- 
ience. Asparagus roots should be set out this month. 

Eed Oats can be sown. I consider these and German Millet the 
two best forage plants for Louisiana. 

Cucumbers can be planted in the hot bed ; they are mostly planted 
here durihg November and December, but if the hot bed is properly 
made those planted in this month will bear better than those planted 
in November. 

FEBRUARY. 

All winter vegetables can be, sown this month; such as Spinach, 
Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip and Leeks. Also the early varieties 
of Kadishes and Spring and Purple Top Turnip, Swiss Chard and Kohl- 
rabi. 

Sow for succession Lettuce, Cabbage and Early Cauliflower ; if the 
season is favorable and the month of April not too dry the latter may 
succeed. 

Cauliflower and Cabbage plants should be transplanted ; Shallots 
divided and set out again. 

Sow Sorrel, Eoquette, Chervil, Parsley, Cress and Celery. 

Peas of all kinds can be planted, especially the early varieties. 
The late kinds should be sown in January, but they may be planted 
during this month. 

This is the time to plant the general crop of Potatoes. On an 
average they will succeed better when planted during this, than during 
any other month. . 

Herb seeds should be planted; tender varieties best sown in a 
frame, and transplanted into the open ground afterwards. 

Asparagus roots can be planted ; this is the proper month to sow 
the seed of this vegetable. 

Plants in the hot bed will require attention ; give air when the sun 
shines and the weather is pleasant. If too thick, thin out so they may 
become sturdy. 

Bush Beans can be commenced with this month ; Cucumbers, 
Squash and Melons may be tried, as they often succeed ; if protected 
by small boxes, as most gardeners protect them, there is no risk at all. 

Corn can be planted towards the end of this month. For market, 
the Adams Extra Early and Early White Flint are planted. I recom- 
mend the Sugar varieties for family use ; they are just as large as those 
mentioned, and Stowel's Evergreen is as large as any variety grown. 

Mangel Wurtzel and Sugar Beet should be" sown this month for 
stock. Sweet Potatoes can be put in a bed for sprouting, so as to have 
early slips. 

MARCH. 

Sow Beets, Kadish, Qabbage, early varieties ; Kohlrabi, Lettuce, 
Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Swiss Chard and Leek. 

Also, Celery for cutting, Parsley, Eoquette, Cress and Chervil. 
The latter part of the month sow Endive. Of Lettuce, the Eoyal Cab- 



70 ElCHAED FrOTSCHER's ALMAiifAC AND GaEDEN MaNUAL 



bage and Perpignan ; the White Coss is a favorite variety for spring ; 
the Butterhead will run into seed too quickly and should not be sown 
later than the middle of February in this latitude. 

Plant a full supply of Bush and Pole Beans. For Lima Beans, 
better to wait till towards the end of the month, as they rot easily 
when the ground is not warm enough, or too wet. 

Squash, Cucumbers, Melons and Okra can be planted. The remark 
in regard to:Lima Beans holds good for Okra. Early varieties of Peas 
may still be planted. 

Tomatoes, Egg Plants and Peppers can be set out in the open 
ground, and seed sown for a later crop. Plant Sweet Corn. 

Potatoes can be planted ; all depends upon the season. Some years 
they do as well as those planted during last month. 

Beans are hard to keep in this climate, and therefore very few are 
planted for shelling purposes. With a little care, however, they can be 
kept, but they ought not to be planted before the first of August, so 
that they may ripen when the weather gets cooler. When the season 
is favorable leave them out till dry ; gather the pods and expose them 
a few days to the sun. It is best to shell them at once, and after they 
are shelled put them to air and sun again for a few days lopger. Sacks 
are better to keep them in, than barrels or boxes. The Red and White 
Kidney are generally the varieties used for drying. Beans raised in 
spring are hard to keep, and if intended for seed they should be put 
up m bottles, or in tin boxes, and a little camphor sprinkled between 
them. 

Sweet Potatoes should be planted. 



APRIL. 

Sow Bush, Pole and Lima Beans, Sweet Corn, Cucumber, Squash, 
Melons and Okra. 

Beets, Carrots, Swiss Chard, Eadish, Lettuce, Mustard, Endive, 
Eoquette, Cress, Parsley, Chervil and Celery for cutting. 

Sow Tomatoes, Egg Plant and Pepper for succession. It is rather 
late to sow Cabbage seed now, but if sown, the early varieties only can 
be successfully used. Kohlrabi can still be sown, but it is best to sow 
it thinly in drills a foot apart, and thin out to four inches in the rows. 

Towards the end of this month a sowing of the Late Italian Giant 
Cauliflower can be made. It is very large, and takes from eight to nine 
months before it matures, so has to be sown early. It is always best to 
make a couple of sowings, so that in case one should fail the other 
may be used. This variety is hardier than the French and German 
kinds. A good i)lan is to sow the seed in boxes, elevated two feet or more- 
above the ground, as it will keep the cabbage-fly off. The plants 
should be overlooked daily, and all green cabbage worms, or other 
vermin removed. 

Sweet Potato Slips, for early crop, can be planted out. Early Irish 
Potatoes will be fit to dig now, and the ground they are taken out of 
may be planted with Corn, Beans, Squash, etc. 

Sow Pumpkins of both kinds ; the Field and the Cashaw. 



For the Southern States. 71 



German Millet should be sown this month. The ground ought to 
be well plowed and harrowed. Three pecks of seed is the quantum to 
be sown per acre. It will be well to roll the ground after sowing, and 
the seed will require no other covering. If no roller is handy, some 
brush tied together ought to be passed over the ground sown. For hay, 
it should be cut when in flower. Every planter should give it a trial. 



MAY. 

Very few varieties of vegetables can be sown during this month. 
Many of the winter varieties will not do well if sown now. The grounds 
should now be occupied with growing crops. 

Where Potatoes and Onions are taken up, Corn, Melons, Cucum- 
bers, Squash and Pumpkin may be planted. 

Nothing of the Cabbage kind, except the Creole Cabbage seed, can 
be sown this month. It is supposed to stand the heat better than the 
other varieties, but it makes only loose heads, and runs up to seed as 
early as the end of November. 

Yellow and white sunfimer Eadish and Endive should be sown. 
Lettuce requires much water during hot weather, and if neglected, it 
will become hard and tasteless. The Perpignan is the best kind for 
summer use. Okra can still be sown. 

The first sowing of White Solid Celery is to be made this month. 
The seed requires to be shaded, and if the weather is dry, should be 
regularly watered. Late Italian Cauliflower should be sown. 

Cow Peas can be planted between the corn, or the crowders in rows ; 
the latter are the best to be used green. If they are sown for fertilizing 
purposes, they are sown one bushel per acre, and plowed under when 
the ground is well covered ; or sometimes they are left tiU fall when 
they commence to decay, and then plowed down. 

Sweet Potato Slips can be set out, taking advantage of an occasional 
rain ; if it does not rain they have to be watered. The tops of Shallots 
will commence to get dry; this indicates that they are fit to take up. 
Pull them up and expose to the sun for a few days and then store them 
away in a dry airy place, taking care not to lay them too thick, as they 
are liable to heat. Lima and Pole Beans can be planted ; the Southern 
Prolific is the best variety for late planting. 



JUNE. 

This month is similar to the last, that is, not a great deal can be 
sown. The growing crops will require attention as weeds grow fast. 
Plant Corn for the last supply of roasting ears. A few Water and Musk 
Melons may be planted. Cucumbers, Squash and Pumi^kin planted 
this month generally do very well, but the first requires an abundance 
of water if the weather is dry. 

Southern Prolific Pole Beans may be planted during this month. 
Continue to set out Sweet Potato Vines. 

Sow Yellow and White Summer Radish, sow Endive for salad ; this 
is raised more easily than the Lettuce. 



72 KiCHAED Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Lettuce can be sown, but it requires more care than most ijeople are 
willing to bestow. Soak the seeds for half an hour in water, take 
them out and put them in a piece of cloth and place in a cool spot, 
under the cistern or if convenient in an ice-box. Keep the cloth moist 
and in two or three days the seeds will sprout. Then sow them ; best 
to do so in the evening and give a watering. 

If the seed is sown without being sprouted, ants will be likely to 
carry it away before it can germinate, and the seedsman be blamed for 
selling seed' that did not grow. This sprouting has to be done from 
May to September, depending upon the weather. Should the weather 
be moist and cool in the fall it can be dispensed with. Some sow late 
Cabbage for winter crop in this month, saying that the plants are easier 
raised during this than the two following months. I consider this 
month too soon ; plants will become too hard and long legged before 
they can be planted out. 

This is the last month to sow the Late Italian Cauliflower ; towards 
the end the Early Italian Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Some culti- 
vators transplant them, when large enough, at once into the open 
ground ; others plant them first into flower-pots and transplant them 
into the ground later. If transplanted at ^his time, they will require to 
be shaded for a few days, till they commence to grow. 

Sow Tomatoes for late crop during the latter part of this month. 

JULY. 

Plant Pole Beans ; also Bush Beans towards the end of the month. 
Sow Tomatoes in the early part for the last crop. Some Corn for roast- 
ing ears may still be planted. Cucumbers can be planted for pickling. 
Early Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Sow Endive, Lettuce, Yellow 
and White»Summer Kadish. Where the ground is new, some Turnips 
and Euta Bagas can be sown. Cabbage should be commenced with 
after the fifteenth of this month ; Superior Flat Dutch, Improved Drum- 
head, St. Denis or Bonneuil and Brunswick are the leading,,kinds. It 
is hard to say which is the best time to sow ; as our seasons differ so much, 
some seasons we get frost early, other seasons not before January. 
Cabbage is most easily hurt by frost when it is half grown, when the 
plants are small, or when they are headed up, frost does not hurt 
much. It is always good to make two or three sowings ; as a general 
thing plants raised from July and August sown seed give the most 
satisfaction ; they are almost certain to head. September, in my 
experience is the most ticklish month ; as the seed sown in that month 
is generally only half grown when we have some frosts, and therefore 
more liable to be hurt. But there are exceptions ; four years ago the 
seed sown in September turned out best. Seed sown at the end of 
October and during November generally give good results, but if planted 
for market, will not bring as much as Cabbage sown in July and August. 
Brunswick is the earliest of the large growing kinds, it should be sown 
in July and August, so that it may be headed up when the cold comes, 
as it is more tender than the Flat Dutch and Drumhead. The same 
may be said in regard to the St. Denis. All Cabbages require strong 
good soil, but these two varieties particularly. Brunswick makes also 



For the Southern States. 73 



a very good spring cabbage when sown end of October. The standard 
varieties, the Superior Flat Dutch and Improved Drumhead, should be 
sown end of this month and during next. It is better to sow plenty of 
seeds, than to be short of plants. I would prefer one hundred plants 
raised in July and August to four times that amount raised in Septem- 
ber. It is very hard to protect the young plants from the ravages of 
the fly. Strong tobacco water is as good as anything else for this purpose, 
or tobacco stems cut fine and scattered over the ground will keep them 
off to some extent. As the plants have to be watered, the smell of the 
tobacco will drive the flies away. 

AUGUST. 

This is a very active month for gardening in the South. Plant Bush 
Beans, Extra Early and Washington Peas. Sow late Cabbages and 
Drumhead Savoy, also Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts and Kale. The Early 
Italian Giant Cauliflower may still be sown, but now is the proper 
time to sow the Half Early Paris, Asiatic and other early varieties. ' 

Sow Parsley, Roquette, Chervil, Lettuce, Endive and Sorrel ; but in 
case of dry weather these seeds will have to be watered freely. 

Continue to sow Yellow Summer Turnip Eadishes, and commence 
to sow red varieties, such as scarlet Turnip, Half Long French, and 
Long Scarlet. 

Towards the end of the month the Black Spanish Eadish can be 
sow^n ; also, Swiss Chard. 

Sow Mustard and Cress ; the former will generally do well. All 
kinds of Turnips and Euta Bagas should be sown ; also, Kohlrabi. 

The seeds of all kinds of Beets should be put in the ground. 

Towards the end of the month Carrots can be sown ; but the sow- 
ing of all vegetables at this time of the year depends much upon the 
season. If we should have hot and dry weather it is useless to do 
much, as seed can not come up without being watered. White Solid 
Celery should be sown for a succession, and the Dwarf kinds for spring 
use. 

Shallots can be set out during this month ; also Onion Sets, espe- 
cially if they are raised from Creole seed. The early part of the month 
is the proper time to plant Red and White Kidney Beans for shelling 
and drying,, for winter use. 

Early Rose and other varieties of Potatoes, should be planted 
early this month for a winter crop, and the latest of Tomato plants 
should be set out, if not done last month. If Celery plants are set out 
during this month, they require to be shaded. 

SEPTEMBER. 

Most of the seeds recommended for last month can be sown this, 
and some more added. 

In the early part Bush Beans can be planted, as they will bear before 
frost comes. Plant Extra Early and early varieties of peas. Sow Radishes 
of all kinds. Carrot, Beets, Parsnip, Salsify, Roquette, Chervil, Parsley, 



71 EicHAKD Frotsches's Almanac and Gaeden Manual 



SorreL Cress, Lettuce, Endive, Leek, Turnips, Kohlrabi, Broccoli, 
Early Cauliflower, Kale, Celery, Corn Salad and Mustard. 

After the fifteenth of this month Creole Onion seed can be sown. 
This is an important crop, and should not be neglected. If it is very 
dry, cover the bed, after the seed has been sown, with green moss ; it 
will keep the ground moist, and the seed will come up more regularly. 
The moss has to be taken off as soon as the young plants make their 
appearance..- 

Celery plants may be set out in ditches prepared for that purpose. 
Cauliflower and Cabbage plants can be transplanted if the weather is 
favorable. 

If the weather is not too hot and dry. Spinach should be sown ; but 
it is useless to do so if the weather is not suitable. 

Cabbage can be sown, but it is much better to sow in August and 
transplant during this month. 

Set out Shallots. Sorrel should be divided and replanted. 
Sow Turnip-rooted Celery. 

OCTOBER. 

Artichokes should be dressed, the suckers or sprouts taken off, and 
new plantings made. 

Onion seed can still be sown ; but it is better to get the seed into the 
ground as soon as possible, so the plants get to be some size before the 
cold weather comes. 

Towards the end of the month. Black Eye Marrowfat Peas can be 
planted ; also, English or Yrindsor Beans. 

Sow Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Kale, Spinach, 
Mustard, Swiss Chard, Carrots, Beets, Salsify, Leek, Corn Salad, 
Parsley, Eoquette, Chervil, Kohlrabi, Eadish, Lettuce, Endive and 
Parsnip. Shallots from the first planting can be divided, and set out 
again. Salsify does very finely here, but is generally sown too late ; this 
is the proper month to sow the seed. The ground should be mellow 
and have been manured last spring. It should be spaded up very deeply ; 
as the size and smoothness of the roots d-epend upon the preparation of 
the soil. 

Water the Celery with soap suds, and if the season has been favor- 
able, by the end of this month some may be earthed up. 

Sow" Eye, Barley and Eed Oats, Orchard Grass, Eed and White Clover, 
and Alfalfa Clover. Strawberry plants should be transplanted ; they 
can not be left in the same spot for three or four years, as is done North. 
The Wilson's Albany and Longworth's Prolific are the favorite varieties 
for the market. 

The Wilson's Albany do not make many runners here, but they 
form a stool something like the plants of violets, and these stools have 
to be taken up and divided. 

NOVEMBER. 

Continue to sow Spinach, Corn Salad, Eadish, Lettuce, Mustard, 
Eoquette, Parsley, Chervil, Carrots, Salsify, Parsnip, Cress and Endive, 
also Turnips and Cabbage: Superior Flat Dutch and Improved Drum- 
head, sown in this month, make fine cabbage in the spring. 



Foe the Southern States. 75 



Artichoke should be dressed if not already done last month. 

Sow Black Eye and other late varieties of Peas, frost does not hurt 
them as long as they are small, and during this time of the year, they 
will grow but very slowly. English Beans can be planted, frost does 
not hurt them, and if not planted soon they will not bear much. 

Manure for hot beds should be looked after, and ought not to be 
over one month old. It should be thrown together in a heap, and when 
heated forked over again so the long and short manure will be well 
mixed. The first vegetables generally sown in the hot beds are Cucum- 
bers ; it is best to start them in two or three inch pots, and when they 
have two rough leaves, transplant them to their place ; two good plants 
are sufficient under every sash. 

DECEMBER. 

Not a great deal is planted during this month, as the ground is 
generally occupied by growing crops. 

Plant Peas for a general crop ; some potatoes may be risked, but 
it is uncertain whether they will succeed or not. 

Sow Spinach, Eoquette, Kadish, Carrots, Lettuce, Endive and 
Cabbage. 

Early varieties of Cauliflower can be sown in a frame or sheltered 
situation, to be transplanted in Eebruary into the open ground. Early 
Cabbages, such as York, Oxheart and Winningstadt, may be sown. 

To those who wish to force Tomatoes, I will say that this is the 
month to sow them. The best kind for that purpose is the Extra Early 
Dwarf Ked ; it is really a great acquisition ; it is very dwarfish, very 
productive, of good size and hears the fruit in clusters.^ 





76 EICHAP.D FEOTSCiiiiit s Atat. 


i^^'AC A^-D 


Gap. -HEX MA^'^AL 


i 




PLANTERS' AND GARDENERS' PRIOE 

Cost of Mailing Seeds. Orders for ounces and ten cent pa 
mailed free of postage. Except Beans, Pea-s and Corn ; if any 
in large papers are ordered by mail, ix>stage must be paid by 
chaser, or I will send small sized papers and prepay the post 
large sized papers of some varieties of Beans and Peas, the pos 
cost more than the papers of same. On orders by the pound a 
an advance of sixteen cents per pound and thirtj- cents per qu 
be added to quotations for postage. 

Articlioke. per oz. 
Lar^^e Paris or Loan . . . . .... ^0 50 


LIST. 

pers are 
of these 
the pur- 
age. On 
tage will 
nd quart 
art, must 

per S) 
85 00 

1 00 
per gal. 

ei w 

1 '>j 

1 00 
1 00 
1 2<3 
75 

80 

1 00 

75 

1 20 

2 00 
2 00 
1 50 

1 .50 

2 00 
2 C«3 
2 CK) 

1 CK3 

per a 
$1 00 

75 ] 
75 j 

75 

1 00 
1 00 
50 

50 

1 25 

1 00 

4 <>j 




Asparagus. 

LiT^-- Purple Tod 






10 




Beaus, (Dttaef, Snap OB Bush. ^ 

Extra Early Six Weeks or Newing 
Early E^d Speckled Valentine . . . 
Early Mohawk Sis Weeks 


ton 


Wondfc 


per qnart. 

r $0 25 

25 

25 




Early Yellow Six Weeks ... . 






25 




Dtrarf Qerman Wax, (Stringless) 






30 








20 




Red Speckled French 






20 




Early China Red Eve 






25 




Eed Kidnev 






20 




Dwarf Golden Wax ^X^W* 






. 30 




Beaa», (Pole ob Euxxrs-a) 

Laro^e Lima 






50 










50 




Horticnltural or Wren's Ec^cr 






-10 










40 




- German Wax, (Stringless) 

Southern Prolific 

Crease Back 

Beans, English. 

1 Broad Windsor 






50 

50 

50 

30 




Beet. 

Extra Early or Bassano 

Simon's Early Eed Tnrnip 


... 




per oz. 

$0 10 

10 




Early Blood Tnmin 






10 




LouCT Blood 






10 




Half Lorcr Blood 






10 




Egyptian Eed Turnip 

Lonc7 Eed Manuel Wnrtzel . . 


... 




10 

10 




W Viifp TV'^nfTi m* Sncr-ar 






10 




Silver or Swi«5s Chard 






10 




Borecole or Curled Knle. 






15 




Broccoli. 

Purple Cape 


... 




30 

30 













Fob, the Southern States. 77 



Cabbagre. per oz. per lb 

Early York $0 25 $2 50 

Early Large York 25 2 50 

Early Sugar Loaf 25 3 00 

Early Large Oxheart 25 3 00 

Early Winningstadt 25 3 00 

Jersey Wakefield 50 5 00 

Early Flat Dutch 25 3 00 

Large Flat Brunswick 25 4 00 

Fotler's Improved Brunswick 30 4 00 

Improved Large Late Drumhead 25 4 00 

Superior Large Late Flat Dutch 25 4 00 

Red Dutch, (for pickling) 30 4 00 

Green Globe Savoy 25 3 00 

Early Dwarf Savoy 25 3 00 

Drumhead Savoy 25 4 00 

St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil 25 4 00 

Cauliflo^ver. 

Extra Early Paris 1 00 12 00 

Half Early Paris 1 00 12 00 

Large Asiatic 1 00 12 00 

Early Erfurt 1 00 15 00 

LeNormand's short stemmed ..... .'. .' 1 00 15 00 

Early Italian Giant 1 00 15 00 

Late Italian Giant •. 1 00 15 00 

Imperial 1 00 12 00 

Carrot. 

Early Scarlet Horn 10 1 20 

Half Long Scarlet French 10 1 20 

Half Long Luc IG , -120 

Improved Long Orange 10 1 20 

Long Red without core 10 1 20 

St. Valerie, (New) 15 150 

Celery. 

Large White Solid 30 4 00 

Incomparable Dwarf White '. 30 4 00 

Sandringham's Dwarf White 30 4 00 

Large Ribbed Dwarf (new) 30 4 00 

Turnip Rooted 30 4 00 

Cutting 15 2 00 

Chervil. 

Green Curled 20 2 50 

CoUards 20 2 50 

CornSalad 15 2 00 

Corn. per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar $0 25 $0 80 

Adams Extra Early 20 60 

Early Sugar or Sweet 20 75 

Stowel's Evergreen Sugar 20 75 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed 20 60 

Early Yellow Canada 15 60 

Large White Flint 15 60 

Blunts Prolific, Field (new) 20 75 



pel 


ft) i 


SI 


00 i 


3 


00 


1 


25 ' 


1 


25 


2 


00 


1 


50 ! 


4 00 i 



EiCHAED Feotschee's Almaxac A^-D Gaedex Ma::si:al 



Cress. per oz. 

Curled or Pepper Grass SO 10 

BroadleaYerl 20 

Cuciiintoer. 

Improved Early Y*liite Spine 15 

Early Frame 15 

Long Green Turke}' 20 

Early Cluster 15 

Gherkin or Burr, (for pickling) '....... 25 

Large Purple or Xew Orleans Market '. . 50 6 00 

Endive. 

Green Curled 20 2 00 

Estra Fine Curled 20 2 00 

Broadleaved or Escaroile 20 2 00 

Kobl Rabi. 

Early White Vienna 25 4 00 

L,eel£. ' 

Large London Flag 25 

Large Carentan 30 

L.ettiice. 

Early Cabbage, or White Butter 25 

Improved Hoyal Cabbage 25 

Brown Dutch 30 

Drumhead Cabbage Lettuce 25 

White Paris Coss 30 

Large Curled India 30 

Perpignan ;......... 30 

Improved Large Passion 30 

Melon, jTIusk or €anteloiipe» 

Netted Xutmeg 15 

.. Netted Citron 15 

Pine Apple : 15 

Early White Japan 15 

Persian or Cassaba 15 

New Orleans Market ... 20 

Melon, Heater. 

Mountain Sweet 10 

Mountain Sprout 10 

Improved Gipsey 15 

Ice Cream, (White Seeded) 15 

Orange ^ 20 

Rattlesnake 20 

Mustard. 

Yv'hite or Yellow Seeded 10 

Largeleaved 10 

IVasturtiuni. 

Tall 25 

Dwarf 30 



3 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


i 00 


3 00 


4 00 


4 00 


4 00 


4 00 


1 50 


1 50 


1 50 


1 50 


1 50 


2 00 


1 00 


1 25 


1 50 


1 50 


2 00 


2 00 


50 


1 00 


3 00 


4 00 



For the Southern States. 79 



Okra. per oz. per lb 

Tall Growing $0 10 $1 00 

Dwarf 10 100 

Onion. 

Yellow^ Dutch or Strassburg 25 4 00 

Large Red Wethersfield 25 3 00 

White or Silver Skiu 25 4 00 

Creole. Crop a failure. New crop ready in July. Price 
given on application. 

Shallots. 

Parsley. 

Plain leaved 10 1 00 

Double Curled 10 125 

Improved Garnishing , 15 1 50 

Parsnip. 

Hallow Crown or Sugar 10 1 20 

Peas. per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early........ $0 30 $1 00 

Tom Thumb 30 100 

Early Washington 20 75 

Laxton's Alpha 40 1 25 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod 30 1 00 

Champion of England 30 1 20 

McLean's Advancer 30 1 20 

McLean's Little Gem " 40 1 25 

Laxton's Prclific Long Pod 40 1 50 

Eugenie 30 120 

Dwarf Blue Imperial '..... 30 1 00 

Royal Dwarf Marrow 25 80 

Black Eyed Marrowfat 15 60 

Large White Marrowfat 20 80 

Dwarf Sugar 50 2 00 

TallSugar 50 2 00 

Field or Cow Peas Market Price. 

Pepper. per oz. per lb 

Bell or Bull Nose .* $0 40 $4 00 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous 50 5 00 

Long Red Cayenne 40 4 00 

Red Cherry 40 4 00 

Potatoes. 

Early Rose \ rp tB -Ji 

Jackson White ] g _ ^ p^ 

Breeze's Peerless :... / cs'^ fl ^ 

Russets > ^ ^ 'I S 

Extra Early Vermont I ^ ° o ® • 

1 S O !3 > S 

Snowflake . o ^ O? "Sc .2 

/ •r' tJO „ -*^ 
Beauty of Hebron / ^ a ® g 



80 EiCHAED Feotschee's Almanac and Gaedes Manxal 



Potatoes, S\*^eet. 

Yam "J Prices vary according to market. 

Bermnda >- Quotations ^ill be given on appli- 

Shanghai or California Tarn \ cation, 

Pnmpkiii. per qnait 

Kentucky Field SO 25 

per oz. 

Lai^e Cheese SO 10 

Cashaw Crook-Xeck 10 

Radish. 

Earlv Long Scarlet 10 

Early Scarlet Turnip 10 

Yellow Summer Turnip 10 

Early Scarlet Olive shaped 10 

"White Summer Turnip 15 

Scarlet Half Long French 10 

Black Spanish (Winter) 15 

Chinese Eose, (Winter) 15 

R^qnette 20 

Salsify (American) - . . 20 

Spinach. 

Extra Large Leaved Savoy 10 

Broadleaved Eianders 10 

Squash. 

Early Bush or Patty Pan 15 

Long Green or Summer Crook- Neck 15 

London Vegetable Marrow 25 

The Hubbard 15 

Boston MaiTow , 15 

Tomato. 

Extra Early Dwarf Eed 50 

Early Large Smooth Eed 20 

Fejee Island 30 

Tilden 30 

Trophy, (Selected) '. 50 

Large Yellow , 30 

Acme, (New) 50 

Turnip. 

Early Eed or Purple Top, (strap-leaved) ' 10 

Early TVhite Flat Dutch, (strap-leaved) 10 

Large White Globe 10 

Pomerian Globe 10 

"White Spring 10 

Yellow Aberdeen 10 

Golden Ball 15 

Purple Top Euta Baga 10 

Improved Euta Baga 15 



■pel gal. 


81 CO 


per lb. 


$0 75 


1 00 


SO 


1 00 


1 00 


80 


1 20 


80 


1 20 


1 50 


3 00 


3 00 


60 


50 


1 00 


1 50 


2 00 


1 25 


1 50 


6 00 


3 00 


4 00 


i 00 


6 00 


i 00 


6 00 


60 


60 


60 


60 


60 


• 75 


75 


60 


75 



For the Southern States. 81 



Sweet and Medicinal Herbs. per package. 

Auise 10c. 

Balm 10 

Basil 10 

Bene 10 

Borage . 10 

Caraway 10 

Dill 10 

Fennel 10 

Lavender 10 

Majoram 10 

Pot Marigold 10 

Rosemary 10 

Rue 10 

Sage 10 

Summer Savory 10 

Thyme 10 

Wormwood 10 

Orass and Field Seeds. 

Red Clover \ 

White Dutch Clover 

Alsike Clover 

Alfalfa or French Lucerne , 

Kentucky Blue Grass , 

Rescue Grass f .2 '^ 

Hungarian Grass \^ P-i 

German Millet ^ 

Rye i S 

Barley I ^ 

Red or Rust Proof Oats , . . . \ o 

Sorghum ] O" 

Broom Corn , 

Buckwheat , 



Prices of larger quantities of seed will be given on application. 
Peas and Beans very low if ordered by the bushel. 



82 EicHAED Feotschek"s ALMA^'AC A^'D G-AEDEy Manual 



The following letter on "Alfalfa" or "Lucerne," has been written 
by E. M. Hudson, Es'i., a gentleman who is a close observer, and has 
given the subject a great deal of attention, it will be found very instruc- 
tive. 

TiLLA Fkiedhzim, 
JlohiJe County, Ala., September 7th, 1S78. 

3lE. E. FEOTSCHEE. Xew Orleans. La. 
Dear Sir : ^ 

Tour letter of the 3rd inst. has just reached me, and I cheerfully 
comply with your reciuest to give you the results of my experiments 
with Lucerne or Alfalfa, and my opinion of it as a forage-plant for the 
South. 

I preface my statement with the observation that iny experiments 
have been conducted on a naturally poor, piney-woods soil (which 
would be classed as a sandy soil), varying in depth from six inches to 
one foot. But I have a good red-clay sub-soil, which enables the soil 
to retain the fertilizers applied to it, thus rendering it susceptible of 
permanent enriching. 

Three years since, when my attention was nrst directed to Alfalfa 
I sought the advice of the Editor of the Journal of Proore.?s, Professor 
Stelle, who informed me that, after attempting for several years to 
cultivate it, he had desisted. He stated that the plant, at Citronelle in 
this country', died out every summer, not being able to withstand the 
hot suns of our climate. Discouraged, but not dismayed, I determined 
to test the matter on a small scale at first. Having procured some 
seed in March 1876, 1 planted them on a border in my garden, and gave 
neither manure nor work that season. The early summer here that 
year was very dry ; there was no rain whatever from the 1st of June to 23d 
Jnly ; and from the 2nd of August to loth ]S^ovember not a drop of rain 
fell on my place. Yet during all this time, my Alfalfa remained fresh, 
bloomed, and was cut two or three times. On the 1st November I dug 
some of it to examine the habit of root-growth: and to my astonish- 
ment I found it necessary to go 22 in-ches below the surface to reach any- 
thing like the end of the top roots. At once it was apparent that the 
plant was by its very habit of growth, adapted to hot and dry climates. 
It is indeed a "child of the sun." 

Encouraged by this experiment, in which I purposely refrained 
from giving the Alfalfa any care beyond cutting it occasionally, last 
year, I proceeded on a larger scale, planting both spring and fall, as I 
have done again this year to ascertain the best season for inittins: in the 
seed. My experience teaches that there is no preference to be given to 
spring sowings over those of autumn, p7'orJf?^rZ only, there be enough 
moisture in the soil to make the seed germinate, which they do more 
quickly and more surely than the best turnips. Two winters have 
proved to me that the Alfalfa remains green throughout the winter in 
this latitude, 25 miles north of Mobile, and at an altitude of 4:CK3 feet 
above tide-water. Therefore I should prefer fall-so^vings, which will 
give the first cutting from the 1st March to 1st April following. This 
season my first cutting was made on the first of April ; and I have cirt 
it since regularly ever^- four or six weeks, according to the weather, 
to cure for hay. Meanwhile a portion has been cut almost daily for 



For the Southern States. 



feeding green, or soiling. Used in the latter way, (for under no circum- 
stances must it ever be pastured) I am able to give my stock fresh, green 
food fully four weeks before the native wild grasses commence to put 
out. I deem it best to cut the daj-- before, what is fed green, in order to 
let it become thoroughly wilted before using. After a large number of 
experiments with horses, mules, cattle and swine, I can aver that in no 
instance from March to November, have I found a case when any of 
these animals v/ould not give the preference to Alfalfa over every kind 
of grass (also soiled) known in this region. And, whiJe Alfalfa makes 
a sweet and nutritious hay eagerly ©aten by all kinds of stock, it is as a 
forage plant for soiling, which is available for at least nine months in 
the year, that I esteem it so highly. The hay is easily cured, if that 
which is cut in the forenoon is thrown into small cochs at noon, then 
spread out after the dew is off next morning, sunned for an hour, and 
at once hauled into the barn. By this method the leaves do not fall off, 
which is sure to be the case if the Alfalfa is exposed to a day or two of 
hot sunshine. 

It has been my habit to precede the Alfalfa with a clean crop, usually 
Kutabagas, after which I sow cLay-peas to be turned in about the last of 
July. About the middle of September or later I have the land 
ploughed, the turn-plough being followed by a deep sub-soil plough 
or scooter. After this the land is fertilized and harrowed until it is 
thoroughly pulverized and all lumps broken up. The fertilizers 
emplo3'ed by me are 500 lt)s. fine bone-dust (phosphate of lime) and 
1000 lbs. cotton-seed hull-ashes per acre. These ashes are very rich in 
potash and phosphates, containing nearly 45 per cent, of the phosphate 
of potash and nearly 40 per cent, of the phosphate of lime— the two 
articles best adapted to the wants of this plant. I sow all of my Alfalfa 
with the Matthew's Seed Drill, in rows 10 inches apart. Broad-cast 
would be preferable, if the land w^ere perfectly free from grass and 
weeds ; but, as it takes several years of clean culture to put the land 
in this condition, sowing in drills is practically the best. No seed sower 
known to me can be compared with the Matthew's Seed Drill. It's 
work is evenly and regularly done, and with a rapidity that is astonish- 
ing ; for it opens the drill to any desired depth, drops the seed, covers 
and rolls them, and marks the line for the next drill at one operation. 
It is siAiple and durable in its structure, and is the greatest labor-saving 
machine of its kind ever devised for hand-work. 

When my Alfalfa is about 3 inches high I work it with the Matthew's 
Hand Cultivator. First the front tooth of the Cultivator is taken out, 
by which means the row is straddled and all the grass cut out close to 
the i^lant ; then, the front tooth being replaced, the cultivator is passed 
between the rows, completely cleaning the middles of all foul growth. 
As often as required to keep down grass, until the Alfalfa is large 
enough to cut, the Matthew's Hand Cultivator is passed between the 
rows. 

Alfalfa requires three years to reach perfection, but even the first 
year the yield is larger than that of most forage plants, and after the 
second it is enormous. The land must, however, be made rich at 
first; a top dressing every three years is all that will thereafter be 
required. The seed must be very lightly covered and should be rolled, 
or brushed in, if not sowed with a Matthew's Seed Sower. 



84 EicHAED Frotschee's Almanac and Gaeden Manual 

Whenever the plant is in bloom it must he cut ; for, if the seed be 
left to mature, the stems become hard and woody. Also, whenever 
it turns yellow, no matter at what age, it must be cut or mowed ; for the 
yellow color shows the presence of some disease, or the work of some 
small insect, both of which seem to be remedied by moving promptly. 
My experience leads me to the conclusion that fully five tons of cured 
hay per acre may be counted on if proper attention be given to deep 
ploughing, siibsoiling, fertilizing and cleanliness of the soil. These 
things are indispensable, and without them no one need attempt to 
cultivate Alfalfa. 

In conclusion I will remark that I have tried the Lucerne seed, 
imported by you from France, side by side with the Alfalfa seed sent 
me by Trumbull & Co., of San Francisco, and I cannot see the sliglitest 
difference in appearance, character, quality or quantity of yield, or 
hardiness. They are identical ; both have germinated equally well, 
that is to say, perfectly. 

In closing I cannot do better than refer you to the little treatise of 
Mr. C. W. Howard, entitled : "A manual of the cultivation of the grasses 
and forage plants at the South." Mr, Howard among the very first to 
cultivate Lucerne in the South, gives it the preference over all other 
forage plants whatever. My experience confirms all that Mr. Howard 
claims for it. Certainly a plant that lasts a generation is worthy of the 
bestowal of some time, patience and money to realize what a treasure 
they can secure for themselves. I confidently believe that in ten years 
from this date the Alfalfa will be generally cultivated throughout the 
entire South. 

I am, respectfully yours, 

E. M. HUDSON, 

Counsellor at law, 

20 Carondelet Street, 

New Orleans. 



YlLLA FEIEDHEni, 

Mobile County, Ala., Septemher 1st, 1880. 

Mr. K. FEOTSCHEE, New Orleans, La. 
Dear Sir : 

In the subjoined observations you will find a statement of the 
method of cultivating the Irish Potato, which my experience induces 
me to consider as good as any other with which I am familiar ; and, as 
it is the one which I have adopted, its description will be responsive to 
your request for information as to my system. 

Much more depends on the selection of a proper soil than the 
ordinary cultivator is willing to believe. The Irish Potato requires to 
attain perfection, both in quality and quantity, a sandy loam, rather 
moist but not wet, and likewise warm. In the piney-regions this is not 
difficult to find ; and there new land gives the best results. But, as 
new land cannot always be had, it will be found that sod-land, ploughed 
under in August or September, will be productive of the next best 



Foe the Southern States. 85 

results. When ploughed at thdt season, the sod has ample time to 
decompose before planting the crop, particularly if slaked lime at the 
rate of one to two barrels per acre be spread broad-cast before turning 
the sod under. With new land, it is to be observed, that lime is even 
more necessary than with old, not only to facilitate and hasten the 
decomposition of the vegetable matter in the soil, but to neutralize the 
acid which prevails to a greater or less extent in all new lands except 
limestone formations. Moreover the potato requires time in some 
form to absorb any excess of moisture. It has been observed repeatedly 
that, where lime has been applied to the land before planting, the 
potato is rarely affected by disease ; and tubers produced on such land 
are preserved much more easily and for a greater length of time. In 
the North the question of preserving potatoes, provided they be fully 
matured, presents no difficulty ; but in the South, where the crop is 
harvested much earlier, few persons attempt to keep potatoes from one 
season to the next, unless they be from a very late crop gathered in 
autumn. But, as will be seen further on, there is no great difficulty 
about it, although few seem to be aware of it. 

The land should be thoroughly prepared, as for any other crop, by 
thoroughly ploughing and pulverizing it. The fertilization of the soil 
is of the utmost importance ; and I have found that one-half of the 
fertilizers should be applied broad-cast before planting, and ploughed 
under. 

Supposing that you have in August or September scattered one or 
two barrels of lime, after it has been slaked, per acre on your sod or 
new land and turned it under, it should remain till about the first of 
February in this section. Then scatter broad-cast one-half of your 
fertilizer and plough the same in, and harrow until the soil is well pul- 
verized. Open deep furrows about three and a half feet apart, by running 
the turn-plough first one way and then the other. Now drop your cut 
potatoes about tvv^elve to fifteen inches apart, and on toj) of the same 
scatter pine straw or leaves to the depth of about two inches. Oak 
leaves from the woods are better than pine straw, but not so readily 
obtained in large quantities. But even pine straw is a fertilizer not to 
be despised. In the absence of leaves or pine straw, wheat chaff, rice 
chaff, or wheat straw will serve admirably ; and if partly rotted they 
will be the better. Then all act as a mulch to keep the potato-roots 
cool and moist. The next step is to cover the potatoes lightly, not over 
three inches, by running a small turn-plough on one side only of the 
furrow, thus throwing back less than half of the soil turned out in 
making the deep furrow. As soon as the potatoes commence to break 
through the soil, scatter one-fourth of your fertilizer along the drills 
or furrows on top of the potatoes ; then with the small plough throw 
over the potatoes and fertilize the soil from that side of the furrow 
which was not touched at the covering. In a short time the potatoes 
will again break ground, when the remaining fourth of the fertilizer 
should be scattered over them, and covered by a furrow on each side 
of the row. When the potatoes appear for the third time and grow to 
be six or eight inches high they should again be hilled up with a large 
plough or sweep, so as to leave but the ends out of the ground. This 
is all the cultivation required, except to keep out any grass that may 
make its appearance. In the rows tufts of grass can, it will be found, 



ElCHAED FrOTSCHEE'S AlMANAC AND GaRDE^s MaXuAL 



be more readily and rapidly removed by pulling them ont with the 
hand ; while, should grass appear between the rows, the sweep passed 
through will effectually get rid of it. 

It will be perceived that this method of cultivation necessitates 
high ridges along the rows of potatoes ; and hence the necessity, first 
for planting in a deep furrow or trench and secondly for having the 
furrows three and a half feet apart. Unless the furrow or trench be 
quite deep, ftilly eight inches below the land-level, the rows should be 
still further apart to permit this gradual hilling process. The object of 
deep planting, slight covering at first, followed by two successive cover- 
ings and a final hilling, is to make the potato produce three layers of 
tubers, one above the other, by which the crop is rendered nearly or 
quite three times as great as if covered' once only. And, as at each 
covering new rootlets are formed higher up the caulm or stem, the 
fertilizer is applied so as to supply these additional rootlets with plant 
food. 

The fertilizers best adapted to potatoes are decomposed vegetable 
matter, potash, phosphoric acid and lime. Stable manure is too heat- 
ing, unless thordiigldu rotted. Practically I find lime, applied to the 
sod before turning under in August or September, with cotton seed 
meal and cotton seed hull ashes to give satisfactory crops with the 
leaves, pine straw, chaff or wheat straw in the trenches. Of course the 
addition of fine bone meal in addition will show its results manifestly, 
and is well worth the additional expense. Eight hundred pounds each 
of cotton seed meal and hull ashes, with four hundred pounds of fine 
bone meal per acre, costing altogether not exceeding $22.00, applied as 
above stated, with this method of cultivation, should in an average 
season give 250 bushels of potatoes. It is the poorest economy to 
attempt to grow potatoes without proper and sufficient fertilizers and 
thorough cultivation ; but with these one can count on producing from 
one acre, at less expense for seed, labor, team and fertilizer, three 
times as large a crop, of infinitely superior quality, as is generally pro- 
duced with ordinary cultivation. 

The maturity of the tubers is readily manifested by the tops turn- 
ing yellow and commencing to dry up or die. They should then be 
promptly dug, or the new tubers in the event of rain will take what is 
termed a second growth— another expression for commencing to germ- 
inate—which renders them watery, hard and worthless for food. If 
possible, let the potatoes be dug when it is tolerably dry and sunny. 
As soon as the earth adhering to the potatoes is dry they should be 
removed the same day and placed under shelter in a cool place. If 
there be a flooring of lattice work or lathing through which the air 
can freely pass from below, it is highly beneficial. But care must be 
taken not to place the tubers in too large masses or piles, so as to pre- 
vent healing or fermentation. When placed under shelter, g}*i:)sum or 
ground plaster at the rate of about two quarts per barrel should be 
scattered over the tubers. This absorbs the moistiu-e, and prevents 
heating and decay. If gently turned over and rolled in the gypsum at 
the end of three or four days, the tubers will be ready for shipment in 
three or four days more. Or, if intended for preservation, they will 
remain perfectly sound till next season. Lime in the place of gypsum, 



For the Southern States. 87 



is highly beneficial ; but it is by no means equal to it for preserving 
the tubers throughout our long hot summers. 

The varieties of potatoes are endless in number, but the majority 
are coarse and unpalatable to one who knows what a good .potato is. 
Every year novelties are placed on the market, few of which are found 
able to maintain themselves. This year I have tried the Beauty of 
Hebron from seed obtained from you; and I am satisfied that for 
moderate earliness and prolific qualities it is the best I know. The 
table quality of the tubers is the very best, as you ascertained yourself 
from those I sent you of this season's crop. 

If you find in the foregoing anything you deem useful to your 
friends, I shall be content to have given you my conclusions, arrived 
at by my own experiments and aided by the results of others more 
experienced than myself. I will only add, in conclusion, that I am 
satisfied it is best to cut the seed potatoes to a single eye, with as much 
of the tuber attached as possible ; and I invariably cut my seed a week 
or ten days ; if possible,, before planting, rolling the pieces in gypsum 
as soon as cut. 

Yaurs respectfully, 

E. M. HUDSON. 



88 EiCHAED Feotschee's Al:l[a^'ac and GAEDE>r ]\Iaxual 



HINTS ON ORANGE OULTUSE. 



Orange culture having receiyed so much attention these last few- 
years, a few words on the subject will I hope be beneficial to many who 
contemplate planting an orange grove. 

The first and most important point is to select the best situation for 
an orchard, which should be rolling land or have surface drainage 
with Xorthern protection, either water or wood. I much prefer the 
latter. These conditions obtained, the land should be ploughed into 
ridges, so that the trees may be planted suficiently high from the evil 
influence of wet subsoil. When this is done the way is to get trees from 
a reliable nursery-man or to raise from seeds, the latter is the cheapest 
way. I earnestly recommend sour orange seeds, and when two years 
old have them either gi^afted or budded vrith choice varieties, by this 
process you will have trees much hardier, entirely free from collar 
disease and in bearing in less than half the time it takes sweet seedlings 
to come into bearing ; also you will have such kinds as you may choose 
to select, thus giving a treble advantage over the planting of sweet 
seedlings. A bed prepared in the same way as for cabbage seeds will 
best answer the purpose, plant seeds i inch deep in the early spring, 
and best to take the seeds out of the orange just before planting, press 
the earth vrell, water once or twice and they will be up in a few days. 
They can be transplanted in early summer or spring and will be fit for 
budding next year. When planting in rows plant one foot apart and 
have 3 feet between the rows, this will give plenty room for cultivation. 
After one or two years you may plant in the orchard, at such distance 
apart as the nature of soil and taste of the owner may determine. 
Grafted trees require much less space than seedlings as they commence 
bearing fruit in two or three years after grafting, growing more fruit 
and less wood than seedlings. Great care should be taken not to plant 
too deep, as more injury arises from this than any other cause. It is 
best to have the service of a man who understands the business than to 
run the risk of having the work badly done. If it is necessary to trans- 
plant large trees, care must be taken to take up a good ball of earth 
with the roots ; the spade ought to be sharp so the roots may be cut 
readily, and if any of them are too strong, should be sawed off; the 
same in regard to the tape-root. The best time to transplant orange 
trees, and especially large trees, is in the spring of the year just when 
the sap commences to raise. Always select a warm day ; never when 
there is a sharp north-wind blowing. Small plants, seedlings, can be 
transplanted almost any time during summer and fall, and to advantage 
in August when the second sap sets in. By transplanting large trees 
never put them lower as they have stood before, tramx? the ground 
around the roots hard so the air cannot penetrate, and mulch the trees 
for the first season, and if the season should be dry, give copious 
watering. 



EoR THE Southern States. 89 



FLOWER SEEDS. 



The following list of Flower seeds is not very large, but it contains all 
which is desirable and which will do well in the Southern climate. I im- 
port them from one of the most celebrated growers in Prussia, and they 
are of the best quality. There are very few or no flower seeds raised in 
this country, and Northern houses, which publish large lists and cata- 
logues, get them from just the same sources as myself; but they, on an 
average, sell much higher than I do. Some varieties which are biennial 
in Europe or North, flower here the first season ; in fact, if they do not, 
they generally do not flower at all, as they usually are destroyed by 
the continued long heat of summer. Some kinds grow quicker here and 
come to greater perfection than in a more Northern latitude. 

FlovTcr seeds require a little more care in sowing than vegetable 
seeds. The ground should be well pulverized and light enough not to 
bake after a rain. Some of the more delicate and finer varieties are better 
sown in boxes or seed pans, where they can be better handled and protec- 
ted from hard rains, or cold weather ; the other kinds do not transplant 
well and are better sown at once where they are to remain, or a few 
seeds may be sown in small pots to facilitate transplanting into the 
garden without disturbing the plants, when large enough. Some have 
very fine seeds which the mere j^ressing with the hand or spade to the 
soil will cover ; others may be covered one-fourth of an "inch, according 
to their size. Watering should be done carefully, and if not done 
with the syringe, a watering pot vv^here the holes of the sprout are very 
flne'shouid be used. 

By setting the plants out, or sowing the seeds in the border, con- 
sideration should be taken of the height, so that the taller varieties may 
be in the middle and the dwarf kinds on the edge of the bed. 

The seeds are put up at ten cents a package, one dollar per dozen, 
except a few rare or costly kinds, where the price is noted. All Flower 
seeds in packages are mailed free of postage to the purchaser. Where 
there is more than one color, I generally import them mixed, as I find 
that most of my customers do not wish to purchase six packages or 
more of one variety, in order to get all the colors. One package of 
Asters, Zinnia, Phlox, Chinese Pink, German Stocks, Petunia, Portu- 
laca and others, will always contain an equal mixture of the best 
colors. 

Althea Rosea. Hollyhock. This 
flower has been much improved of late 
years, and is very easily cultivated. Can 
be sown from October till April. Very 
hardy ; from four to six feet high. 

Alyssiim maritimum. Sweet 
Alyssum. Very free flowering plants 
about six inches high, with white flowers, 
very fragrant. Sow from October till 
April. 

Antirliinum iiiajus. Snapdragon. 
Choice mixed. Showy plant of various 
colors. About two feet high. Should be 
sown early, if perfect flowers are desired. 
Sow from October till March. Althea rosea. 




90 



ElGHAKD FrOTSCHER's AlMANAC AND GaEDEN MaNUAL 



Aster. Queen Margaret. German Quilled. Perfect double quilled 
flowers, of all shades, from white to dark purple and crimson. One and 
a half feet high. 





German Quilled Aster. Trufaut's Paeony Flowered Aster. 

Aster. Trufaut's Paeony Flowered Perfection. Large double 
paeony shaped flowers, of fine mixed colors ; one of the best varieties. 
Two feet high ; sow from December till March. Asters should be sown 
in a box or in pots and kept in a green-house, or near a window ; when 
large enough transplant into the border. Take' a shovel of compost 
and mix With the ground before planting. Put three \to four plants 
together and they will show better. They can be cultivated in pots. 




Adonis autumnalia, 

Adonis autiiiuns^lis. Flos Adonis or 
Pheasants Eye. Showy crimson flower, of 
long duration. Sow from November till 
April. One foot high. 

Amara^ntlius candatus. Love Lies 
Bleeding. Long red racemens with blood 
red flowers. Very graceful ; three feet high. 

Amaraiatlius tricolor. Three colored 
Amaranth. Yery showy; cultivated on ac- 
count of its leaves, which are green yellow 
and red. Two to three feet high. 

Asiiaranttaus tricolor. Two colored 
Amaranth. Crimson and green varigated 
foliage ; good for edging. Two feet high. 

Amarantleus atropurpureus. Crim- 
son Amaranth. Long drooping spikes of 
purple flowers. Four feet high. 




Amaranthus tricolor. 



For the Southern States. 



91 





Amaranthus Salicifoliiis, Fountain Plant. Double Daisy. 

AmaraiitJius Salicifoliiis. Fountain Plant, Kich colored 
foliage, very graceful. Five to six feet high. Sow from February till 
June. 




Aquilegia or Columbine. Balsamina Camelia Flowered. 

AqnilegitE. Columbine. A showy and beautiful flower of differ- 
ent colors. Two feet high ; sow from October till March. Should be 
sown early if flowers are wished ; if sown late will not bloom till next 
season, 

Balsamina liorteusis. Lady Slipper, A well known flower of 
easy culture. Kequires good ground to produce double flowers. 

Balsamina. Camelia flowered. Very double and beautiful colors. 

Balsamina camelia flora alba. Pure white flowers, used 
for bouquets. About two feet high. Sow from February till August. 

Bellis Perennis. Daisy. Finest double mixed varieties. Four 
inches high ; from October till January. 



92 



RiCHAED FeOTSCHEE'S ALiTANAC AND GrAKDEN MaXFAL 





Cacalia coccinea. 



Celocia cristata. 



Cacalia coccinea. Scarlet Tassel Flower. A profuse flowering 
plant, with, tassel shaped flowers in clusters. One and a half feet. Sow 
from February till Ma^'. 

Calendula officinalis. Pot Marigold. A plant which, properly 
speaking, belongs to the aromatic herbs, but sometimes cultiyated for 
the flowers, which vary in different shades of yellow. One and a half 
feet. From Januarj^ till April. 

Celocia cristata. Dwarf Cock's-comb. Well known class of 
flowers which are very ornamental, producing large heads of crimson 
and yellow flowers. One to two feet high. Sow from February till 
August. 




Gherianthiis Cheri, 
Clieriantlins Ctieri. Wallflower. This flower is highly esteemed 
in some parts of Europe, but does not grow Tery perfectly here, and 
seldom produces the large spikes of double flowers, which are ver^^ 
fragrant. Two feet high. November till March. 



For the Southern States. 



93 



Campanula speciileiin. Bellflower or Venus' looking-glass. 
Free flowering plants of different colors, from ^hite to dark blue. 
One foot high. Sow from December till March. 





Centaiirea cyauus. 



Ceataurea suavolens. 



Centaurea cyan us. Bottle Pink. A hardy annual of easy 
culture, of various colors. Two feet high. 

Centaurea suavolens. Yellow, Sweet Sultan. December to 
April. 

Cineraria lijl^rida. A beautiful green-house plant. Seed should 
be sown in October or November, and they will flower in spring. Per 
package 25 cents. 

Diauthus Barfeatus. Sweet William. A well known plant 
which has been mueh'- improved of late years. Their beautiful colors 
make them very showy. Should be sown early, otherwise they will 
not flower the first spring. One and a half feet high. October till 
April. 





Dianthns barbatua. Dianthus cMnwisis double. 

Dianttius Chinensis. Chinese Pink. A beautiful class of annu- 
als of various colors, which flower very profusely in early spring and 
summer. One foot high. From October till April. 

Dianthus Heddewiggii. Japan Pink. This is the most showy 
of any of the annual pinks. The flowers are very large and of brilliant 



9i 



ElCHL^SD FrOTSCHEE'S AlMA^TAC and GaEDES' 1[A^'UAL 




colors. One foot high. Sow from October till 
April. 

Diauthiis pliiniarls. Border Pink. A 
fragrant pink used for edging. The flowers are 
fringed generally pink or white with dark eye. 
Does not flower the first year ; two feet high. 
Sow from January till April. 

Dlanthus caryophj^Ilus. Carnation 
Pink. This is a well known and highly esteemed 
class of flowers. They are double, of different 
colors, and very fragrant. Can be sown either 
in fall or spring. Should be shaded during 
midsummer and protected from hard rains. 
Three to four feet high. November till April. 




Dianthup Picotee. Eariv Dwarf double Carnation Pink. 

I>iai3tlius picotee. Finest hybrids. Stage flowers saved from 
a collection of over 500 named varieties, per package 50 cents. 

Diantlins piimila. Early dwarf flowering Carnation Pink. If 
sown early this variety will flower the first season. They are quite' 
dwarfish and flower very profusely. November till April. 

Delpbieiam Imperial G. pi. Imperial Flowering Larkspur, 
Very handsome variety of symmetrical form. Mixed colors; bright 
red, dark blue and red striped. One and a half feet high. 

BelphiKinui ajacis. Eocket 
Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very showy. 
Two and a half feet. 

l>elpliii&itiiii €t3iDensi§. Dwarf 
China Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very 
pretty. One foot high. November till 
April. 

Note.— None of the above three 
varieties transplant well, and are better 
sown at once where they are intended 
to remain. 

Dablia. Large Flowering Dahlia. 
Seed sown in the spring will flower by 
June. Very pretty colors are obtained 
from seed ; the semi-double or single Delphinium Chinensis. 




For the Southern States. 



95 



ones can be puUsd up as soon as they bloom. But those seeds which 
are saved from fine double varieties, will produce a good percentage of 
double flowers. February till June. 

Eschscholtzia, Califoraica. Cali- 
fornia Poppy. A very free flowering plant, 
good for masses. Does not transplant 
well. One foot high. December till April. 





Gaillardia bicolor. Purple Globe Amaranth. 

OaillardiR bicolor. Two colored Gaillardia. Very showy 
plants, which continue to flower for a long time. Flowers red bordered 
with orange yellow. One and a half feet high. January till April. 




Geranium Zonale. 



96 EicHAKD Fbotscher's Almanac and Garden ]Manual 

Gillia. Mixed Gillia. Dwarf plants, which flower freely of various 
colors. One foot. December till April. 

Oomplireeia alt>a aeid purpurea. White and Crimson 
Batchelor Button or Globe Amaranth. Well known variety of flowers ; 
very early and free flowering, continue to flow^er for a long time. Two 
feet high. From February till August. 

Oeranimu Zouaie. Zonale Geranium. Seed saved from large 
flowering varieties of different colors ; should be sown in seed pans, and 
when large enough transplanted into pots, where they can be left, or 
transplanted in spring into the open ground. 




Geranium pelargonium. 



Oeranium pelai'goniuin. Large flowering Pelargonium. 
Spotted varieties, 25 cents per package. 

Oeranium oderatissiina. Applescented Geranium. Culti- 
vated on account of its fragrant leaves, 25 cents per package. Both of 
these kinds are pot plants, and require shade during hot weather. 
Should be sown during fall and winter. 

Oypsophila paniculata. Gypsophila. A graceful plant with 
white flowers, which can be used for bouquets. One foot high ; from 
December till April. 



For the Southern States. 



97 




Ileliotropium. Mixed varieties 
with dark and light shaded flowers. 
A well known plant, esteemed for the 
fragrance of its flowers which are pro- 
duced during the whole summer in 
great profusion. This plant is generally 
propagated by cuttings, but can also 
be raised from seed,— Should be sown 
in a hot bed if sown early. 

Helichrysuni moiistrosuni 
album. White Everlasting Flower, 
Yery showy double flowers. One and 
a half feet high. 

Melaclirysum inonstrosum 
'riibrum. Red Everlasting Flower. 
Very ornamental. One and a half feet 
high. December till April. Does not transplant well. 

Helianthus fl. pi. Double Flov/ering Sunflower. A well known 
l^lant, w^ith showy yellow flowers. The double is often cultivated in 
the flower garden. The single varieties are cultivated mostly for the 
seed. They are said to be antimalarious. Four feet high. February 
till May. 

Iberis aniara. White Candytuft. A well known plant raised a 
good deal by florists for bouquets. Can be sown at different times to 
have a succession of flowers. One foot high. 

Sberis umbelata rosea. Purple Candytuft. One foot. October 
till April. 

L^inuni g:raudifloruiii riibrum. Scarlet Flax. A very pretty 
plant for masses or borders with bright scarlet flowers, dark in the 
centre. One foot. January till April. 



Heliotropium. 




Lobelia erinus. 




Mathiola annua. 



Liobelia erinus. Lobelia. A very graceful plant, with white 
and blue flowers, well adapted for hanging baskets or border. Half 
foot. October till March. 



98 



ElCHAED FrOTSCHEE's AlMANAC AND GaEDEN MaNUAL 



L.ycbuis chalcedonica. Lychnis, 
Nice plants with scarlet, white and rose 
flowers. Two feet. December till April. 

lL.upiuu§. Lupinus. Plants with spikes 
of flowers of various colors. Should be sown 
soon. Does not transplant well. Two feet. 
December till March. 

3Iatliio!a aiiuiia« Ten Weeks Stocks. 
This is one of the finest annuals in cultiva- 
tion. Large flowers of all colors, from white 
to dark blue or crimson. Shouldbe sown in 
pots or pans, and when large enough trans- 
planted into rich soil. One and a quarter 
feet. October till March. ^ 

Mese mb ryaKtheinusn crystalli- 
Lyclinis chalcedonica. Biitm. Ice plant. Xeat plant with icT look- 
ing foliage. It is of spreading habit. Good for baskets or beds. One 
foot. February till April. 

^iiiiiulus ti§-riuus. Monkey flower. Showy flowers of yellow 
and brown. Should be sown in a shady place. Does not transplant 
well. Half foot. December till March. 






Double ^latricaria. 



Matricaria capensis. Double Matricaria. White double 
flowers, resembling the Daisy, but smaller, are fine for bouquets; 
blooms very nearly the whole summer. Two feet. December till March. 

Miiuosa pudica. Sensitive Plant. A curious and interesting 
plant which folds up its leaves when touched. One foot. February till 
June. 

MirabfSis jalapa. Marvel of Peru. A well known plant of easy 
culture ; producing flowers of various colors. It forms a root which 
can be preserved from one 3-ear to another. February till June. Three 
feet. 

ITIyosotis palu§tri$. Forget-me-not. A fine little plant with 
small blue starlike floweis. Should have a moist shady situation. 
Does not succeed so well here as in Europe, of which it is a native. 
Half foot high. December till March. 



For the Southern States. 



99 





Blue Grove Love. Petunia hybrida. 

Neimiophilsi Insigiiis. Blue Grove Love. Plants of easy culture, 
very pretty and profuse bloomers. Bright blue, with white centre. 
One foot high. 





Nigella damascena. 

McniopSiila, tiiactilata. 

Large white flowers spotted with 
violet. One foo^ high. Decem- 
ber till April. 

Ni§rella dsmie^seesia. Love 
in a Mist. Plants of easy culture, 
with light blue flowers. Does 
not transplant well. One foot 
high. December till April. 

Niereiiibers^ia g^racilis. 
Nierembergia. Nice plants with 
delicate foliage, and white flow- 
ers tinted with lilac. One foot 
high. November till April. 

CEsiothera Liaiuarckiana. 
Evening Primrose. Showy large 
yellow flowers. December till 
April. Two feet high. 



(Enothera Lamarckiana, 




Papaver ranunculus flowered. 



100 



EiCHARD Feotschee's Almanac and Gaedex Manual 



Papave r Somniferum. Double ilowering Poppy. Of different 
colors; very showy. 

Papaver ranuociiles flo^^^ered. Double fringed flowers, very 
showy. Can not be transplanted. Two feet high. October till March. 

Petiinia liybrida. Petunia. Splendid mixed hybrid varieties. 
A very decorative plant of various colors, well known to almost every 
lover of flowers. Plants are of spreading habit, about one foot high. 
January till May. 




Phlox DiiTinmoudii prandiflora. 



For the Southern States, 



101 



Petunia flora pleno. Large double flowering varieties. They 
are hybridized with the finest strains, and will give from 20 to 25 per 
cent, of double flowers. Very handsome, 25 cents per package. January 
till March. 

Phl^x Drummondii. 
Drummond's Phlox. One of 
the best and most popular 
annuals in cultivation. Their 
various colors, and length of 
flowering with easy culture, 
make them favorites with 
every one. All fine colors 
mixed. One foot high. De- 
cember till April. 

Piilox Druniiiiondii 
gratidiflora. This is an 
improvement on the above ; 
flowers are larger with white 
centre, different colors. Very 
beautiful. One foot high. 
December till April. 

Portulaca. A small 
plant of great beauty, and 
of the easiest culture. Does 

best in a well exposed situa- " ^-^/^ ■ -"^-^ \ r:smN.\ ^ 

tion, where it has plenty of Double Portulaca. 

sun. The flowers are of various colors, from white to bright scarlet and 
crimson. The plant is good for edging vases or pots. Or where large 
plants are kept in tubs, the surface can be filled with this neat little 
genus of plants. Half foot high. February till August. 

Portulaca grandiflora fl. pi. Double Portulaca. The same 
variety of colors with semi-double and double flowers. Half foot high. 
February till August. 






Primula veris. 



Scabiosa nana. 



Primula veris. Polyanthus. An herbaceous plant of various 
colors, highly esteemed in Europe. Half foot high. December till 
April. 



102 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Primula chisiensis. Chinese Prim- 
rose. A green-house plant, which flow- 
ers profusely and continues to bloom for 
a long time, should be sown early to in- 
sure the plant flowering well. Different 
colors mixed, per package 25 cts. One 
and a half feet high, October till Febru- 
ary. 

Reseda ©derata. Sweet Mignonette. 
A fragrant plant and a favorite with every- 
body. One foot high. 

Reseda g:FaBidlOora. Similar to 

the above j^lant and flower, spikes larger. 

Fifteen inches. December till April. 

Eeseda oderata. ScaMosa iiaeia. Dwarf Mourning 

Bride. Plants of double flowers of various colors. One foot high. 

December till April. 

Sapoiiaria calabrica. Soapwort. A very free flowering annual, 
of easy culture, resembling somewhat in leaves the Sweet William. 
One and a half feet high. December till April. 

Salvia coccinea splendens. Scarlet Salvia or Eed Flowering 
Sage. A pot or green-house plant, but which can be grown as an 
annual, as it flowers freely from seed the first year. Two to three feet 
high. February till April. 

Silene Arnieria. Lobels Catchfly. A free blooming plant of 
easy culture ; flowers almost anywhere. Eed and white. One and a 
half feet high. 






Ta^etes Erecta. 



Tasetes Patula. 



Tagetes erecta. African or Tall-growing Marigold. Ver^^ 
showy annuals for borders, with bright yellow flowers growing upright. 
One and a half feet high. 

Tagetes patula. French or Dwarf Marigold. A ver^^ compact 
dwarf growing variety, covered with yellow and brown flowers. One 
and a half feet high. January till April. 

Terbeua hybrida. Hybridized Verbena. A well known and 
favorite flower for borders. Their long flowering and great diversity 



For the Southern States. 



103 



of color make them valu- 
able for every garden, 
however small. All col- 
ors mixed. One and a 
half feet high. January 
tillA!>ril. 

Verbena Striped 
Italian. These are beau- 
tiful striped kinds of all 
colors with large eyes. 

Verbena Niveni. 
White Verbena,. Pure 
white Yerbena of more or 
less fragrance. ' One and 
a half feet high. January 
till April. 

Viiaca rosea and 
alba. Eed and White 
Periwinkle. Plants of 
shining foliage, with 
w^hite and dark rose col- 
ored flowers, which are 
produced during the 
whole summer and au- 
tumn. Two feet high. 
February till April. 
Viola odorata. Sweet 
Violet. Well known edg- 
ing plant, which gener- 
ally is propagated by di- 
viding the plants ; but can 
also be raised from seed. 
Half foot high. Sow from 
January till March. 




Choicest Large English Pansy. 




Hybridized Verbena, 



Striped ItaUan Verbena. 



1(M 



RlCHAED FrOTSCHZK's AiMAXAC -ASD GaEDEX MA^rAL 



Ti Ola tricolor 111 axi ma. Large flowering choicest Pansy. This 
is one of the finest little plants in cultivation, for pots or the open 
ground. They are of endless colors and markings. When planted in 
the garden, they will show better if planted in masses, and a little 
elevated above the level of the garden. Half foot high. October till 
3Iarch. 




6,K^ftttR£A» 



Double Zinnia, 



Ziunia clegrans fl. pi. Double Zinnia. Plants of very easy cul- 
ture, flowering ver>- j^rofusely through the whole summer] and] fall ; 
producing double flowers of all colors, almost as large as the flower of 
a dahlia. Three feet high. Februarv till August. 



Foe the Southern States. 



10[ 



CLIMBING PLANTS. 



Beniiicasa cerifera. Wax Gourd. A stroni? i^rowinsr vine with 



long shaped dark crimson fruit which looks very ornamental, 
used for preserves. 



It is 





Balloon Vine. Climbing' Cobsea. 

Cardiospermiiin. Balloon Vine. A quick growing- climber, the 
seeds of which are in a pod shaped like a miniature balloon, therefore 
the name. 

CobsRa Scaiidens. Climbing Cobsea. Large purple bell shaped 
flowers. Should be sown in a hot-bed, and not kept too moist. Place 
the seed edgewise in the ground. Twenty feet high. January till 
April. 





Morning Glory. Mixed Tliuubergia. 

Convolvolus major. Morning Glory. Well known vine with 
various handsomely colored flowers of easy culture. Grow almost any- 
where. Ten feet high. February till July. 

Ciireurbita. Ornamental Gourd. Mixed varieties of Ornamenial 
Gourds of different shapes and sizes. February till April. 

Ctircurbita lag^enaria dulcis. Sweet Gourd. A strong grow- 
ing vine of which the young fruits are used like Squash. February till 
April. 



106 



EiCHARD Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Hyacinth Bean. 



DolicliosLiablab. Hyacinth Bean. 
Free growing plant, with purple and 
white flowers.- March till May. 

Ipomsea Quainoclit rosea. 

Red Cypress Yine. Very beautiful 
delicate foliage, of rapid growth, with 
scarlet flowers. 

Ipomsea Quamoclit alba. 

White Cypress Vine. The same as the 
foregoing kind, except white flowers. 
February till August, 

Ipomsea Bona Wox. Large Flow- 
ering Evening Glory. A vine of rapid 
growth, with beautiful blue and white 
flowers, which open in the evening. 
Twenty feet high. February till June. 

liathyrus odoratus. Sweet Peas. Beautiful flowers of all colors, 
very showy. Good for cut flowers. Six feet high. December till April. 

Maiirandia Barclayana. Mixed Maurandia. A slender grow- 
ing vine of rapid growth. Rose, purple and white colors mixed. Ten 
feet high. February till April. 

Mamordica Balsamina. Balsam Apple, A climbing plant 
of very rapid growth, producing Cucumber-like fruits, with warts on 
them. They are believed to contain some medicinal virtues. They 
are put in jars with alcohol, and are used as a dressing for cuts, 
bruises, etc. 

LiuflTa acutang:itla. Dish Rag Vine. A very rapid growing vine 
of the Gourd family. When the fruit is dry, the fibrous substance, 
which covers the seeds, can be used as a rag. February till April. 

I§echiniii edule. Vegetable Pear or Mirliton. A rapid growing 
vine with grape-like leaves, of which the fruit is eaten ; there are two 
varieties, white and green. It has only one seed, and the whole fruit 
has to be planted. 

TropaBolum iiiajns. Nasturtium. Trailing plants with elegant 
flowers of different shades, mostly yellow and crimson, which are pro- 
duced in great abundance. Four feet high. February till April. 

Thunbergria. Mixed Thunbergia. Very ornamental vines, with 
yellow bell shaped flowers, w4th dark eye. Six feet high. February 
till May. 



For the Southern States. 



107 



BULBOUS EOOTS. 




Anemones. 



Anemones. Double flowering. 
Planted and treated the same as 
the Kanunculus. They are of great 
varieties in color. 

Double Dutch $0 50 per dozen. 

French 1 00 

Dahlias. Fine double named 
varieties. Plants so well known 
for their brilliancy, diversity of 
colors and profuse flowering quali- 
ties, that they require no recom- 
mendation. They can be planted 
from February till May ; they thrive 
best in rich loamy soil. They 
should be tied up to stakes, which 
ought to be driven into the ground 
before or when planting them. To 
have them flower late in the season, 
they should be planted late in 
spring, and the flower buds nipped 
off when they appear ; treated in this 
w^ay, they will produce perfect flow- 
ers during fall. Undivided roots 
$4.00 per dozen. 




Dahlias. 



108 



RiCHAED Frotscher's Alma^ac axd Garden Manual 



Oladiolns. Hybrid Gla- 
diolus. One of the best sum- 
mer flowering bulbs ; they 
have been greatly improved 
of late years, and almost 
every color has been pro- 
duced ; tinged and blotched 
in all shades -from delicate 
rose to dark vermillion. 
TThen planted at intervals 
during spring, they will 
flower at different times, but 
those that are planted ear- 
liest produce the finest flow- 
ers. The roots should be 
taken up in the fall. 

Hybrids mixed, 1st choice, 
10c. each, 75c. per dozen. 

Hybrids, white ground, 1st 
choice, 10c. each, SI. 00 per 
dozen. 

Very fine named varieties, 
25c. each. 

Oloxinias. These are 
really, bulbous green-house 
plants, but they can be cul- 
tivated in pots and kept in a 
shady place in the garden 
window. They are very beauti- 
ful, color from white to dark 
violet and crimson. The leaves 
are velvety, and on some varieties 
very large. They should be 
planted early in spring ; require 
sandy ground and a good deal of 
moisture during flowering time. 
French Hybiids strong bulbs, 
83.00 per dozen. 

Hyacinths. (Dutch.) Double 
and single. The Hyacinth is a 
beautiful flowering bulb, well 
suited for open ground or pot 
culture. They should be planted 
from October till February. If 




Gloxinias. 



planted in pots it is well to keep in a cool rather dark place, till they 
are well started when they can be placed in the full light and sun. 
Double and single, 15 cents each, $1.50 per dozen. 

L.ilini]i tig^riiinni. Tiger Lily. A well known variety, very 
showy and of easy culture, 15 cents each. 



For the Southern States. 



109 



L,iliiiin tig^riiiuiii fl. pi. This is a new variety; it is perfectly 
double, and the petals are imbricated almost as regularly as a camelia 
flower. Novel and fine, 30 cents each. 




Lilium tigrinum fl. pi. 



JAPAN LILIES. 

Lilium auratuni. Golden 
Band Lily. This is a very hand- 
some Lily, the flowers are large 
and white, each petal having a 
yellow stripe. It is of easy cul- 
ture. A loamy dry soil suits it 
best, and planted one inch deep. 
The past season I had occasion 
to see several of this noble Lily 
in bloom, and it is really fine ; 
half a dozen flowers opening at 
the same time, and they measure 
from 6 to 9 inches across ; it is 
very fragrant. I expect some 
fine bulbs, same as I had last 
year, imported direct from their 
native country. 
Flowering bulbs, 50 cents each. 
Liilium laiicifolium al- 
biim. Pure white Japan Lily, 
Lilium auratum. 40 cents each, 

L<iliiiiii lancifolium rubrum. White and red spotted, 20 cents 
each. 

L.ilium lancifolium roseum. Eose spotted, 20 cents each. 
These Japan Lilies are very beautiful and fragrant; should be 
planted from October till January. Perfectly suited to this climate. 




110 Richard Fkotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





Lilium lancifolium rubrum. Tuberoses, double flowering. 

PsBonia sinensis. Chiuese or herbaceous Pfeonia. Herbaceous 
plants of different colors and great beauty; they should be planted 
during fall in a shady situation, as it flowers early in spring ; if planted 
too late will not flower perfectly; 40 cents each. 





Ranunculus. SciUa peruviana. 

KanMnculus. Double Flowering. The roots can be planted 
during fall and winter, either in the open ground or in pots. The 
French varieties are more robust than the Persian, and the flowers 
are larger. The ground should be rather dry, and if planted in the 
open ground, it will be well to have the spot a little higher than the 
bed or border. 

Persian Ranunculus — . $0 25 per dozen. 

French '' 50 

Scilla peruvisLina. These are green-house bulbs at the North, 
but here they are hardy, and do well in the open ground. There are 
two varieties, the blue and the white. They throw up a shoot, on the 
end of which the flowers appear, forming a truss. Plant from October 
till January. 40 cents each. 

T uBips. Double and single Tulips thrive better in a more Northern 
latitude than this, but some years they flower well here, and as they are 
cheap a few flowering bulbs will pay the small amount they cost. They 



1 

For the Southern States. 




:-i 


should not be planted later than December and placed very shallow 


in the ground ; not more than one third of the bulb should be covered. 


When near flowering they require a good deal of moisture. Sin 


gle and 4 


double, 50 cents per dozen. 






Tuberoses. Double flowering. They are ornamental 


for the 1 


garden, and very valuable for making bouquets, on 


account of their 1 


pure white color, and great fragrance. Plant during the spring months. | 


Strong bulbs, 10 cents each, 75 cents per dozen. 






BOUQUET PAPERS. 






I keep a large and varied stock of bouquet papers, 


besides the dif- 1 


ferent kinds enumerated below ; I also have finer qualities satin 


, velvet 1 


and tarleton, ranging from $1.50 to $4.50 each ; also 


some new styles || 


called Parisian, finished in the same exquisite styl 


e as the 


above. 


They are very appropriate for bridal bouquets. 




1 


PASTED CARTONS. 






^^^^^ 




' 


^^^^^^ 






Measure includes the Lace. 






Inches in 


Inches in 






No. diameter, per doz. per gross 


No. diameter. 


per doz. 


per gross 


4 4i $0 15 $1 50 


1622 Hi 


60 


6 75 


523 4| 15 1 75 


1671 in 


GO 


6 75 


1716 5 20 2 00 


1919 12 


60 


6 75 


531 5i 15 1 75 


533 12 


60 


7 00 


1823 5i 15 1 75 


12 12 


60 


7 00 


1688 7 25 2 75 


1789 12^ 


60 


7 00 


1606 7i 30 3 00 


1604 13 


50 


6 00 


1648 7^ 30 3 25 


1760 13 


60 


7 00 


1662 8 35 3 50 


1712 13^ 


70 


7 75 


518 8 35 3 50 


1920 121 


90 


10 00 


1610 8 35 3 50 


501 14 


70 


7 50 ! 


1682 9 40 4 00 


1693 15 


90 


10 00 


.j^ 1685 9 40 4 00 


1922 15 


1 20 


13 50 ! 


" 10 n 40 4 25 


176 15 


1 00 


11 00 


1609 10 50 5 00 


549 16 


80 


9 00 


1690 10 50 4 75 


1923 16 


1 50 


15 00 


1918 10| 50 5 00 


525 18 


1 40 


12 00 


•552 lOi 60 5 00 


18 18 


1 50 


15 00 1 


1677 11 60 6 25 

^ . _ 


507 20 


1 50 


17 00 



112 EiCHAED Frotschee's Almanac and Garden Manual 



ITALIANS, with 12 Scallops. 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 






Inches in 








Inches in 






No. 


diameter. 


each* 


per doz. 


No. 


diameter. 


each. 


per doz. 


34 


31 


§0 10 


$0 75 


31 


n 


15 


1 50 


24 


6 


10 


90 


83 


n 


20 


1 60 


119 


6f 


'0 15 


1 25 


99 


84 


20 


1 75 


8 


7 


10 


1 00 











ITALIANS, with 24- Scallops. 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 




No 


Inches in 
diameter. 


each. 


per doz. 


No. 


Inches in 
diameter. 


each. 


per doz. 


53 


6 


$0 10 


SI 00 


73 


9 


25 


2 25 


54 


7h 


15 


1 40 


15 


12 


25 


2 50 


76 


8i 


20 


» 1 80 











ITALIANS, with Gilt or Silver Lace, 12 Scallops. 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 

Inches in 
diameter. 

8 gilt? 50c. each. 

9 " 50c. " 



Inches in 
No. diameter. 

36 6 gilt, 25c. each. 

44 65 gilt and silver, 25c. each 

39 7 " 30c. each. 



No. 
33 
13 
15 



9 silver, 50c. each. 



For the Southern States. 113 



MATTHEWS' GARDEN SEED DRILL. 




Trice, $13.00 Boxed. 

A reliable Seed Drill is recognized as one of the most valuable 
implements in use. It is a great labor saver, and no one who raises 
vegetables, whether in large or small quantities, can afford to do with- 
out one. But as an unreliable drill is worse than worthless, care should 
be taken to select the best. We therefore invite your attention to the 
Matthew's Garden Seed Drill. No better one can be procured. Medals 
and testimonials confirming its superiority over all other drills, have 
been repeatedly bestowed upon it from all quarters ; and, as it has been 
improved from time to time, it is now everywhere acknowledged to be 

THE MOST PEKFECT DEILL IN USE. 

It is designed to be used in field or garden. When in operation, it 
opens the furrow, drops the seed accurately at the desired depth, covers 
it and lightly rolls it, and at the same time marks the next row, all of 
which is done, with mechanical precision, by simply propelling the 
drill forward. In this way it sows, with an evenness and rapidity im- 
possible for the most skillful hand tb do, all the different varieties of 
Beet, Carrot, Onion, Tiamip, Parsnip, Sage, Spinach, Sorghum, Peas, 
Beans, Broom Corn, Fodder Corn, etc. 

It is simple in principle, and is constructed of the best material and 
in the best style and finish. The agitator stirs the seed in the hopper 
thoroughly by a positive motion, which insures continuous and uniform 
delivery, and the bottom of the hopper is made sufficiently dishing to 
sow the smallest quantity of seed. When desired, the movement of 
the agitator can be checked, and the drill may then be propelled forward 
or backward without dropping seed. A simple contrivance accurately 
gauges the uniform deposit of the seed to any required depth, thus avoid- 
ing the risk of planting at irregular depths, or so deep in places as to 
destroy the seed. The markers are made adjustable for the purpose of 
marking the rows at any desired distance apart, and they mark them 
distinctly whether the ground is even or uneven. 

Another great advantage which it posseses over any other machine 
is that it is the only drill ivhich has an INDICATOE luitJi the names of 
different seeds thereon. This indicator is devised to simplify the adjust- 
ment for sowing different varieties of seeds. It is securely attached to 
the side of the hopper, in plain sight, and is made use of for changing 
from sowing one kind of seed to another by simply turning* it until the 
name of the seed to be planted comes up to the'indicator-pin, which 
revolves the dial, attached to the bottom of the hopper, until the right 
sized hole in it for planting that seed comes directly into place. This 
ingenious invention is a great improvement over any other method in 
use, and is infinitely more convenient and reliable. 

The drill is complete in all its arrangements, and is very durable. 
There are no cams, gears, springs or belts to get out of order, nor are 
there any parts subject to the unusual wear, and rightly used, it will 
last many years and do a vast amount of service without requiring any 
repairs. 



114 



EICHABD FrOTSCHER'S AlMA^^.C AND GaBDEN MaNUAL 



MATTHEWS' HAND CULTIVATOR. 




Price $6,50 Boxed. 

TH. M..™.- H... C...xv™ one <^^^^J^^^::Z^, 
use for weeding between row crops, and for »« !«|""™ . ^ * j 
^nd is an indispensable -mpan on - 1 m nt o t -e^^^^^ to 

It is thoroughly f °"«t'^"'=t«d hrough^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

operate. A boy can do «•' "5;fl'f^\f ^^ ground cohered, even when 
from 6 to 14 inches, and w U cut aH *e S^ ^^^ .^^^^^.^^ 

spread to its greatest extent Its «^^'^^^^°; ' ^ ^he depth of cul- 

tern, and thoroughly pulverize and ^fl^^'^ovL^enng the wheels, 
tivating may be accurately gauged by raising or tower 

which is quickly done by the use of a thumb scre« . 




Loop Fastener, swing socket Scythe Snath. 




^^ 



For the Southern States. 



115 



1 




Boys' Favorite Set. 




Weeding Hoe and Eake combined. 



Cast Steel Garden Trowel. 




Strawberry Fork. 




Spading Fork D Handle. 



Excelsior Weeding Hook. 



116 EiCHAKD Frotschee's Almanac and Gaeden Manual 

GAEDEN IMPLEMENTS. 

Improved American Garden Syringes. 

No. 2 — Conservatory, (with two extra roses) , . . . . 

No. 2 — Green House, ( " " ) 

No. 5— " ( " " ) 

No. 8— " ( " " ) 

HOES. 

W. A. LjTidon's Louisiana, No. 1 

No. 2 

No. 3 •. 

Lane's Planters' (with handle) No. ..... . , .. . 

( " )No. 1 

( " )No. 2.....* 

Oval Eye Planters' (Polished) 6 inches 

" ( " )8 " 

Great Southern ( " )8 " 

( " )9 " .• 

King, Briggs & Go's Scovill Pattern, No. 3 

No. 2 

D. & H. Scoviil's Imp. Planters', 8 inches 

Lane's Crescent, No. 1 

No. 2 

Champion, (with handle) 

S. S. Tuttle's Socket, (with handle) 

Two Pronged Weeding, (with handle) 

RAKES. 

Malleable Iron, 9 teeth (Ladies) 

" 11 " 

" 13 " . 

Steel, 10 " 



12 
14 
16 



SPADES. 

Ames' Long Handled 

Porter's " 

Naylors' " 

Ames' Short Handled 

Porter's " 

Rowland's " 

SHOVELS. 

Eoviiand's Long Handled 

Ames' Short " 

SCYTHE SNATHS. 

Handles for French Scythe Blades 

No. 1, round socket, slip ring 

' ' 0, plate heel, slip ring 

' ' 00, Loop Fastener 



$5 00 


6 00 


7 50 


9 00 


1 15 


1 20 


1 25 


90 


95 


1 00 


60 


75 


65 


75 


65 


55 


75 


65 


60 


75 


75 


50 


50 


60 


75 


65 


80 


90 


1 00 


1 25 


1 00 


75 


1 50 


1 25 


1 00 


1 00 


1 40 


75 


75 


80 


90 



For the Southern States. 117 



SICKLES. 

English (welded) No. 2 $0 40 

"3 45 

" (riveted back) No. 1 75 

" ( " ) " 2 .* 60 

" ( " ) " 3 85 

French 40c. and 45 

SHEARS. 

Hedge Shears, 10 inches 2 50 

8 " $2 00and2 25 

7 " 2 00 

Pruning " No. 1 (Weiss) 2 25 

" 2 ( " ) 1 75 

" 3( " ) 2 00 

" '' 8 inches (French) 1 50 

♦' 9 " ( " ) , 175 

KNIVES. 

Union Knife Go's budding, (wooden handle) 75 

Geo. Wostenholmes " (white bone handle). ..... .No. -1, $1 00 ; No. 2 1 25 

H, & J. W. King's Prunning. ' from 60c. to 1 25 

Saynor & Cook's "■ from $1 50 to 1 75 

FORKS. 

Spading, Long Handled 1 25 

^* D Handle (strapped) , 1 25 

Manure, Long Handled, 4 tine , 1 00 

Short " 4 " 50 

POTATO HOOKS. 

Long Handled, 6 tine 75 

4 " 65 



SCYTHES. 

French, First Quality (Polished) 22 inches 90 

( " ) 24 " 1 00 

( *' ) 26 " 1 15 

( " ) 28 " 1 25 

Second Quality (Blue) 22 " 80 

( " ) 24 " 90 

( " ) 26 " 1 00 

( " ) 28 " 1 10 

Common, 22 ' " 75 

24 " 85 

26 '* 95 

FLORAL TOOLS. 

The Boy's Favorite, Hoe, Spade and Kake 2 50 

LADIES' SETS. 

No. 5, 4 pieces, Hoe, Rake, Spade and Fork 1 25 

" 68,3 " Hoe and Eake combined, Fork and Spade 175 

" 67, 3 " ^' " " 1 50 



118 



EiCHAED Frotscher's Almanac axd Garden Manual 



No. 3, 4 pieces, Best English, extra finish $3 00 

" 4, 4 - " " 400 

TREE PRUNERS. 

Length of Pol^ 8 feet, weight 3^ lbs 2 50 

" 10 " " 44" , 2 50 

Extra Knives each 30 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Pruning Saws 50c. and 1 00 

Excelsior Weeding Hooks. . . > 25 

Transplanting Shovels 25o. and 35 

" TroTvels, American .- Bin., 15c., 7 in,, 20 

Forks, No. 1, 20c., No. 2, 25 

Scotch Whetstones * 25 

Common '" » 20 

French " 15 

Lathing Hatchets TOc. and 75 

Nottingham Bill Hooks 1 50 

Wooden Hay Rakes 25 

Hoe Handles 20c. and 25 



WATERING POTS. 



6 Quarts , Japanned . 



10 
12 
16 
14 



50 

65 

75 

..;. 100 

140 

Extra Heavy, (hand made) 2 00 

FLOWER POTS. 

3 inch per dozen 40 

4 " 

5 " 

6 " 

7 " 

8 " 

9 " 

10 " 

12 " 



60 


75 


90 


1 20 


1 50 


1 75 


2 25 


3 75 



SAUCERS. 

5 inch per dozen Q 60 



10 



60 

80 

1 00 
1 20 
1 50 



Foe the Southern States. 119 



CHUFA. 

The following remarks on Chufa are taken from a letter written by 
N. Stansbury, Esq., to the Louisiana .Sugar Bowl. By my own 
experience I can indorse all what is said, and recommend to all who 
have not planted the ''Chufa/' to give it a trial. It is the best feed to 
fatten hogs. 

They can be planted from March to June. They will yield from 
125 to 150 bbls. per acre, with good cultivation. They are very produc- 
tive and the best feed to fatten hogs. One bbl. will put as much fat on 
the ribs of a hog as two of corn. The nut has a fine flavor, nearly equal 
to the pecan. 

They should be planted in rows two feet apart, and from 10 to 12 
inches in the row. When planted this way beds should be used and a 
deep water furrow left at a distance of twelve or fifteen feet. The better 
plan would be to plant three feet aimrt and ten inches in the drill, as 
this would afford a water furrow and not materially lessen the yield. 
The nuts to be reserved for seed or other purposes should be gathered 
before November, or the advance of frost, as the top then dies and the 
nuts will not come up with the spires. 

All the nuts not needed for seed will remain perfectly sound in the 
ground from September until April, where the hogs can eat at will. 
The nut sends up a single spire so much like coco, it might deceive even 
an experienced eye at its first appearance. Around this spire a multi- 
tude of others form rapidly. At the foot of each spire is the nut, never 
more than two inches in the ground, and seldom a half inch. The 
cluster of spires will equal in diamter the head of a flour barrel. As 
the whole surface of the ground will be nearly covered by nuts, one may 
form some idea of the yield. To lift them up, you have only to gather 
all the spires as a lady does her hair when combing it, and a slight pull 
will bring the entire cluster up with nine-tenths of the nuts attached. 
As very little dirt adheres to the roots, the nuts can be threshed off 
quite easily and rapidly. A boy of twelve or fifteen years, with two or 
three small children could gather and thresh out four or five barrels 
daily. "Unlike the coco, the chufa will die out in two or three years, if 
neglected or suffered to be choked with weeds or grass. 

Price per Qt. Per Gall. Per Bushel. 



THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 

(Helianthus Taberosus.) 
By E. M. Hudson. 



Used as a vegetable, the Jerusalem Artichoke makes a delicious 
pickle ; and when cooked, as hereafter directed, it is esteemed by con- 
noisseurs as a luxury. 

Wash and scrape or pare them ; boil in milk and water till they 
are soft, which will be from fifteen to thirty minutes. Take them out 
and stew them a few minutes in a sauce made by rolling a bit of butter 
of the size of a walnut in flour, mixed with half a pint of cream or milk, 
and seasoned with pepper, salt or grated nutmeg. 



120 ElCHAED FrOTSCHER'S AlMA>?AC AND GaRDEX MaNUAL. 



It is as a forage or root crop, however, that this Artichoke posses- 
ses unusal merit for the farmer. Its habit may be styled self-propa- 
gating ; for when once established it is almost perpetual ; and this gives 
it a peculiar value. It will grow on exceedingly poor land and produce 
well ; while on rich land the yield is enormous. Three bushels of tubers 
are amply sufficient to plant an acre, the large ones being cut into 
pieces with two or three eyes like potatoes. The land should be 
thoroughly ploughed; and from January to April they should be 
planted in furrows about three to four feet apart, dropping the tubers 
about 18 inches apart, and covering with a plough. 

When they are well up, plough them as you would corn ; and when 
about a foot high, plough them again, throwing a furrow to each side, 
and you are done cultivating them forever. The first year they will 
yield a good crop, from five to eight hundred bushels, and will improve 
for two or three years, if the soil is good, till they double the product 
of the first 3'ear. On piney-woods land seven hundred bushels to the 
acre is only a fair yield ; on very rich land 1500 to 2000 bushels, it is said, 
have been produced. In August the tops may be cut and cm-ed for hay, 
w^hich is quite equal to corn fodder, or may be fed green, soiled. The 
yield is large and the tops are eagerly eaten by cattle, horses and mules. 
The tops, if cut, should be taken off about a foot from the ground. One 
cutting does not at all affect the yield of the tubers. In November the 
hogs should be turned in to harvest the tubers for themselves, and may 
remain on them till March. In carbonacious matter,— starch or its 
equivalent — they are but a trifle inferior to potatoes, as will be seen 
from the following table : 

In 1000 parts :— Flesh Fbrmers. Fat Formers. 

Potatoes U 189 

Carrots 6 66 

Parsnips 12 70 

Mangolds 2 102 

Sugar Beets 3 136 

White Turnips. 1 40 

Artichokes 10 188 

Thus it will be seen that in 1000 parts, potatoes contain 203 parts of 
nutriment and artichokes 198 parts-; while turnips contain only 41 parts. 
Yet the turnip, above all roots, has made English agriculture progressive, 
because they may be fed on the land without gathering. The artichoke 
is unaffected in the ground by any amount of cold ; and indeed should 
always remain there until gathered for use or planting. 

The enormous 3'ield, the small amount of labor in cultivation, and 
the nutritious character of the tubers make them the most economical 
food for hogs that can possibly be grown. And the hogs, if suffered to 
root them, will be an advantage to them, hy breaking up and softening 
the soil as far down as it is pulverized. Sous with sucJiVuigpigs sJioidd not 
go on them, as the artichokes are said to injure the quality of the milk 
so as to cause suckling pigs to dwindle ; but as soon as they are weaned 
the pigs will do finely by rooting for their lining. These artichokes are 
also the healthiest food that hogs can have ; and they need nothing else 
but salt, ashes and water when fed on them. 

Price per Qt. per Gall. per Bushel, 



■ 


f 

INDEX. 




Page. 


Page. 


Almanac 


.... 6 to 17 


Lettuce 41 to 43 


Artichoke ► . . . 


22 


Letter on Alfalfa 82 to 84 

Letter on Potato Culture ... 84 to 87 


Asparagus 


;...22 


Beans, (Bush) . 

Beans, (Pole) 


, . 23 and 24 
..24 and 25 


Melon, Musk . . . , 43 and 44 


Melon, Water 44 and 45 


Beets 


..25 and 26 


Mustard 46 


1 Borecole or Kale 


27 


Matthew's Seed Drill 113 


Broccoli 


27 


Matthew's Hand Cultivator 114 


1 Brussels Sprouts 


..27 


Nasturtium .... 46 


Bulbous Roots 


107 to 111 


Okra 46 

Onion 47 and 48 


Bouquet Papers 


111 and 112 


Cabbage 


....28 to 31 


Parsley 48 


Cauliflower 


... 31 to 33 


Parsnip 49 


Carrot 


.... 33 to 35 


Peas 49 to 51 


Celery 


..35 and 36 


Pepper 51 and 52 


Chervil 

Collards 


36 

37 


Potatoes . 52 to 57 


Pumpkin 57 

Price List 76 to 81 


Corn Salad 


37 


! 

Corn 

Cress 


. . . 37 and 38 , 
38 


Radish . . 57 to 59 ! 


Remarks on raising vegetables 


Chufa , .. 


........ 119 


for shipping 5 


Climbing Plants 


105 and 106 . 


Roqnette 59 


Directions for Planting. . 


.... 68 to 75 


Shallots 48 


Eggplant 


40 


Spinach 59 


i Endive 


40 


Salsifv 59 


j Flower Seeds 


... 89 to 104 


Sorrel 59 


Grass and Field Seeds . . 


....66 to 68 


Squash 60 


Garden Implements 


. . 114 to 118 


Seeds by Mail 4 


1 Herb Seeds...., 


66 


Sowing Seeds 20 


t Hints on Orange Culture 


88 


Tomato 61 to 63 


Hot Bed 


19 


Turnip 63 to 65 


Jerusalem Artichoke . . . 


. 119 and 120 


Table showing quantity of seed 


Kohlrabi 


41 


} required to the acre 21 


Leek 

1 

I 


41 


Vegetable Garden 18 


i 







f 



Nos. 15 & 17 Du Maine Street, 

MEW ORLEANS. 



U 



I E. 



pp/F-r-j^ jN 



? 






i m' 



II fEGETABLE, ILOWER & flELD | 

sniaf 





I SEED POTATOES A SPECIALTY. U 



>) Jkfjl^ s/<9(::y^ 0/ Seeds is the largest in this City, to C©; 

1 T • - - ' i ^ 

H- which I call the attention of all in want of Fresh and ^ J 



o Reliable Seed. 

f Orders respectfully solicited. 



All cord muni caii ons will meet ivith prom-pt attention. \